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Non-Equilibrium Formation of Ice in Aqueous Solutions: Efficiency of Polyalcohol Solutions for Vitrification

  • Pierre Boutron
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 147)

Abstract

Many individual cells can now be preserved without damage in liquid nitrogen. For this, they are cooled in the presence of a cryoprotectant at an optimum cooling rate where they become surrounded by ice crystals. The cells lose water due to the resulting osmotic pressure. Their shrinkage is sufficient to avoid intracellular ice crystallization but insufficient to be damaging by itself (1). Unfortunately, attempts to preserve the major organs, such as the heart, kidney or liver of man and mammals have almost always failed until now. One of the reasons is that the interior of the organ is cooled more slowly than the exterior: the cooling rate cannot be optimum everywhere in the organ. It may be constituted of different kinds of cells requiring different cooling rates. Furthermore, as noted by Fahy (2), extracellular ice is itself damaging for the structure of the organ and can break the capillaries.

Keywords

Cool Rate Ternary System Amorphous State Butane Diol Critical Cool Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Boutron
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Hématologie, Unité INSERM 217Département de Recherche FondamentaleGrenoble, CedexFrance

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