Time-Resolved Fluoroimmunoassay

  • Erkki Soini
  • Timo Lövgren


The number of published fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) methods and their applications is increasing continuously and FIA has established its position as a reliable analytical method and a nonisotopic alternative to RIA (Hemmilä, 1985). It has been anticipated that RIA methods will be gradually replaced by nonisotopic methods, first by enzyraic methods and then by FIA. Indeed, EIA methods are widely applied, especially in the areas of serology, microbiology, and virology. Until now, FIA methods have had only limited applications — for example in drug monitoring and serologic assays. To be able to replace the traditional RIA methods and the already well-established EIA methods, higher sensitivity, better precision, and more widely applicable performance characteristics are required. The assay principle and the instrument should be suitable for a very wide range of analytes (from small haptens to large microbes), which may be present in either high or low concentrations (from millimolar to picomolar).


Immunometric Assay Trioctylphosphine Oxide Enhancement Solution Fluorescence Decay Time Lanthanide Chelate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bertoft, E., Eskola, J., Näntö, V., and Lövgren. T., 1984 a), Competitive solid-phase immunoassay of testosterone using time-resolved fluorescence, Febs. Lett. 173: 213–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertoft, E., Mäentausta, O., Lövgren, T., 1984 b), Time-resolved fluoroimraunoassay of testosterone, Proceedings: Symposium on the Analysis in Steroids, Szeged, Hungary.Google Scholar
  3. Blomberg, K., Granberg, C., Hemmilä, I., and Lövgren, T., 1986, Europium labelled target cells in assay of natural killer cell activity I. A novel nonradioactive method based on time-resolved fluorescence, J. Immunol. Methods, in press.Google Scholar
  4. Böttger, I., Pabst, H., Serekowitsch, R., and Kriegel, H., 1984 a), Performance of two new solid phase ligand assays for TSH resing monoclonal antibodies, Brit. J. Nucl. Med., 6: 195–207.Google Scholar
  5. Böttger, I., Sommerfeld, V., Pabst, H., 1985 b), Clinical value of two ligand assays for TSH, Proceedings: European Nuclear Medicine Congress, Helsinki, Finland, Aug. 14–17, 1985.Google Scholar
  6. Eskola, J.U., Nevalainen, T.J., and Lövgren, T.N-E., 1983, Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human pancreatic phospholipase A2, Clin. Chem., 29: 1777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Eskola, J., Näntö, V., Meurling, L., and Lövgren, T., 1985 b), Direct solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of cortisol in serum, Clin. Chem. 31: 1731–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Halonen, P., Meurraan, O., Lövgren, T., Hemmilä, I., and Soini, E., 1983, Detection of viral antigens by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, In: “New Developments in Diagnostic Virology”, P.A. Bachman, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Halonen, P., Meurman, O., Petterson, U., Ranki, M., and Lövgren, T., 1984 a), New developments in diagnosis of virus infections, in: “Control of Virus Diseases”, Kurstak, Tijssen, and Kurstak, eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, p. 501.Google Scholar
  10. Halonen, P., Bonfanti, C., Waris, M., Lövgren., T., and Hemmilä, I., 1984 b), New developments in diagnostic virology, in: “New Horizons in Microbiology”, Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  11. Halonen, P., Bonfanti, C., Lövgren, T., Hemmilä, I., and Soini, E., 1985, Detection of viral antigens by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, in: “Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology and Immunology”, K-O. Habermehl, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Helsingius, P., Hemmilä, I., Lövgren, T., 1985, Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for digoxin, Abstract, Israel. J. Clin. Biochem. Lab. Sci. 4: 52.Google Scholar
  13. Hemmilä, I., Dakubu, S., Mukkala, V.-M., Siitari, H., and Lövgren, T., 1984 a), Europium as a label in time-resolved immunofluorometric assays, Anal. Biochem., 137: 335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hemmilä, I., Viljanen, M., and Lövgren, T., 1984 b), Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of tetanus antibodies, Anal. Chem. 317: 737–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heramilä, I., 1985, Fluoroimmunoassays and immunofluorometric assays, Clin. Chem., 31: 359–370.Google Scholar
  16. Hemmilä, I., Pulkki, K., Irjala, K., 1985, Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for C-reactive protein, Abstract, Israel. J. Clin. Biochem. Lab. Sci., 4: 52.Google Scholar
  17. Hemmilä, I., Dakubu, S., Method for fluorescence spectroscopic determination of a biologically active substance, U.S. patent No. 4,565,790 (issued on January 21, 1986)Google Scholar
  18. Jackson, T., Marshall, N., and Ekins, R., 1983, Optimisation of immunoradiometric (labelled antibody) assays, in: “Immunoassays for Clinical Chemistry”, W. M. Hunter and J.E.T. Corrie, eds., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p. 557.Google Scholar
  19. Kaihola, H.-L., Irjala, K., Viikari, J. and Näntö, V., 1985, Determination of thyrotropin in serum by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay evaluated, Clin. Chem. 31: 1706–1709.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Karp, M., Suominen, I., Hemmilä, I. and Mäntsälä, P., 1983, Time-resolved europium fluorescence in enzyme activity measurements: A sensitive protease assay, J. Appl. Biochem. 5: 399–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Lovejoy, L., Holowka, D., and Cathou R., 1977, Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy of pyrene-butyrate-antipyrene antibody complexes. Biochemistry 16: 3668–3672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lövgren, T., Hemmilä, I., Pettersson, K., Eskola, J., and Bertoft, E., 1984, Determination of hormones by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, Talanta, 31: 909–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matikainen, M.-T., Halonen, P., Heramilä, I., and Lövgren, T., 1983, Timeresolved fluoroimmunoassay in the detection of adenovirus hexon antigen, Abstract, Scand. J. Immunol. 18: 77.Google Scholar
  24. Meurman, O., Hemmilä, I., Lövgren, T., and Halonen, P., 1982, Time-resolved fluoroimmunoasay: a new test for rubella antibodies, J.Clin. Microbiol., 16: 920–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mueller, W., and Hirschfeld, T., 1977, Background reduction in fluorochrome staining, Histochem. J. 9: 121–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Näntö, V., Kaihola, H.-L., Irjala, K., and Viikari, J., 1985 a), Evaluation of a sensitive assay for thyrotropin in serum, Abstract, Israel. J. Clin. Biochem. Lab. Sci., 4: 36.Google Scholar
  27. Näntö, V., Suonpää, K., Eskola, J., Lövgren, T., 1985 b), Direct solid phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of total thyroxine in serum, Isr. J. Clin. Biochem. Lab. Sci., 4: 52.Google Scholar
  28. Pettersson, K., Siitari, H., Hemmilä, I., Soini, E., Lövgren, T., Hänninen, V., Tanner, P., and Stenman, U.-H., 1983, Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of human choriogonadotropin, Clin. Chem. 29: 60–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Saris, N.-E., 1983, Europium phosphorescence as a probe of binding to phospholipids, Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 34: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Siitari, H., Hemmilä, I., Soini, E., Lövgren, T., and Koistinen, V., 1983, Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, Nature, 301: 258–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Soini, E., and Hemmilä, I., 1979, Fluoroimmunoassay: Present status and key problems. Clin. Chem., 25: 353–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Soini, E., and Kojola, H., 1983, Time-resolved fluorometer for lanthanide chelates — a new generation of nonisotopic immunoassays. Clin. Chem., 29: 65–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Stenman, U.-H., Myllynen, L., Alftan, H., and Seppälä, M., 1983, Ultrarapid and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin, Lancet, 17: 647–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Stenman, U.-H., Alfthan, H., Koskimies, A., Seppälä, M., Pettersson, K., and Lövgren, T., 1985, Monitoring the LH surge by ultrarapid and highly sensitive immunofluorometric assay, in: “In vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer”, M. Seppälä, R.G. Edwards, eds., The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, p. 544.Google Scholar
  35. Suonpää, M., Lavi, J., Hemmilä, I., and Lövgren, T., 1985, A new sensitive assay of AFP using time-resolved fluorescence and monoclonal antibodies, Clin. Chem. Acta, 145: 341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thuren, T., Virtanen, J., Lalla, M., and Kinnunen, P., 1985, Fluorometric assay for phospholipase A2 in serum, Clin. Chem., 31: 714–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wieder, I., 1978, Background rejection on fluorescence immunoassay, In: “Immunofluorescence and Related Staining Techniques”, W. Knapp, H. Holubar, G. Wick, eds., Elsevier-North Holland Biomedical Press, New York, NY, p. 67.Google Scholar
  38. Viljanen, M., Backman, C., Veromaa, T., Frey, H., Reunanen, M., 1984, Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of myelin basic protein (MBP), Acta Neurol. Scand., 69: 361–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkki Soini
    • 1
  • Timo Lövgren
    • 1
  1. 1.Wallac OyTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations