Lipid Peroxidation and Its Measurement
The oxidative breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological membranes, known as lipid peroxidation, refers to a radical-mediated reaction sequence of complex nature. The process is thought to be crucial in the expression of toxicity related to oxidative stress, as membrane integrity is challenged.
Several ways for assessing the occurrence of lipid peroxidation have been developed. Currently, major interest is in the monitoring of lipid peroxidation in intact cells and organs in order to analyze initial stages of oxidative challenge before actual cell death occurs. The introduction of several noninvasive methods has provided advances in this area.
Lipid peroxidation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids yields ethane and pentane as stable end products, respectively. Thus, intact animals or isolated organs and cells have been analyzed for volatile hydrocarbon evolution.
The reactions of lipid peroxy radicals according to Russell’s mechanism generate singlet molecular oxygen which, in turn, may generate low-level chemiluminescence in the near-infrared. Using sensitive detection methods for these photoemissive species, studies with intact organs and cells have shown good correlation of low-level chemiluminescence with other parameters of lipid peroxidation.
Regarding invasive methods, conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde have been used in numerous studies for the detection of lipid peroxidation. Other products of interest include the assay of lipid peroxides, lipid aldehydes, lipid expoxides, and subsequent products such as fluorescent compounds that may form with cellular constituents.
KeywordsLipid Peroxidation Lipid Hydroperoxide Peroxy Radical Glutathione Transferase Actual Cell Death
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