Advertisement

Studies on Effect of Gamma Radiation on Prostacyclin and Platelet-Activating Factor Synthesis and on Cell Growth Using Smooth Muscle, Fibroblast, and Endothelial Cells in Cultures

  • M. Menconi
  • L. Taylor
  • P. Polgar

Abstract

The effect of gamma radiation on cell division and the synthesis of prostaglandin and platelet-activating factor was studied using homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle, fibroblast, and endothelial cells isolated from the calf pulmonary artery. Exposure of these cultures to doses of up to 30 Gy resulted in some differences in the ability of the cultures to continue their growth. The endothelial cultures, which were the most rapidly proliferating at the time of irradiation, proved the most easily growth inhibited compared to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. On the other hand, the production of prostacyclin, in response to the addition of bradykinin and arachidonate, increased considerably within 30 hours of irradiation in all three cell types. Maximum activation was observed at 10 Gy. Exposure of smooth muscle cells to a trapper of oxygen radicals after irradiation reduced the radiation-induced increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis by about 60% in both the bradykinin- and arachidonate-treated cultures. Since the added arachidonate was illustrated to be directly converted to PGI2 without preliminary esterification, these experiments suggest that the cyclooxygenase complex activity was being affected. However, the synthesis of platelet-activating factor in endothelial cells in response to bradykinin and ionophore A23187 also increased almost twofold in response to irradiation, further suggesting that the action of phospholipase A2 is also affected by gamma irradiation.

Keywords

Smooth Muscle Cell Gamma Radiation Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Homogeneous Culture Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rubin, P., and Casarett, G. W. Radiation effects on fine vasculature and interstitial connective tissue. In: “Clinical Radiation Pathology,” Volume I. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1968, pp. 43–51.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Law, M. P. Radiation-induced vascular injury and its relation to late effects in normal tissues. Adv. Radiat. Biol. 9: 37–73, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gross, N. J. Experimental radiation pneumonitis. IV. Leakage of circulatory proteins onto the alveolar surface. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 95: 19–31, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maisin, J. R. The ultrastructure of the lung of mice exposed to a supra-lethal dose of ionizing radiation on the thorax. Radiat. Res. 44: 545–564, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hopewell, J. W. The importance of vascular damage in the development of late radiation effects in normal tissues. In: “Radiation Biology in Cancer Research.” R. E. Meyn and H. R. Withers, eds. Raven, New York, 1980, pp. 449–459.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bunting, S., Gryglewski, R., Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R. Arterial walls generate from prostaglandin endoperoxides a substance (prostacyclin X) which relaxes strips of mesenteric coeliac arteries and inhibits platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins 12: 897–913, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R. Arachidonic acid metabolites and the interaction between platelets and blood-vessel walls. New Engl. J. Med. 300: 1142–1147, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eldor, A., Vlodavsky, I., Hy Am, E., Atzmon, R., and Fuks, Z. The effect of radiation on prostacyclin (PGI2) production by cultured endothelial cells. Prostaglandins 25: 263–279, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hahn, G. L., Menconi, M. J., Cahill, M., and Polgar, P. The influence of gamma radiation on arachidonic acid release and prostacyclin synthesis. Prostaglandins 25: 783–791, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rubin, D. B., Drab, E. A., Ts’ao, C.-H., Gardner, D., and Ward, W. F. Prostacyclin synthesis in irradiated endothelial cells cultured from bovine aorta. J. Appl. Physiol. 58: 592–597, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Friedman, M., Saunders, D. S., Madden, M. C., Chaney, E. L., and Kwock, L. The effects of ionizing radiation on the pulmonary endothelial cell uptake of α-aminoisobutyric acid and synthesis of prostacyclin. Radiat. Res. 106: 171–181, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Menconi, M., Hahn, G., and Polgar, P. Prostaglandin synthesis by cells comprising the calf pulmonary artery. J. Cell. Physiol. 120: 163–168, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weinberg, K., Douglas, W. H. J., MacNamee, D. R., Lanzillo, J. J., and Fanburg, B. L. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme localization on cultured fibroblasts by immunofluorescence. In Vitro 18: 400–406, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Polgar, P., Taylor, L., and Downing, D. Unsaturated fatty acid effect on cyclic AMP levels in human embryo lung fibroblasts. Prostaglandins 18: 43–52, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Polgar, P., and Taylor, L. Stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis by ascorbic acid via hydrogen peroxide formation. Prostaglandins 19: 696–700, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McIntyre, T. M., Zimmerman, G. A., Satoh, K., and Prescott, S. M. J. Cultured endothelial cells synthesize both platelet-activating factor and prostacyclin in response to histamine, bradykinin and adenosine triphosphate. Clin. Invest. 76: 271–280, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corey, E. J., Albright, J. O., Barton, A. E., and Haschimoto, F. Chemical and enzymatic syntheses of 5-HPETE, a key biological precursor of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS), and 5-HETE. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102: 1435–1436, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Camussi, G., Aglietta, M., Malavasi, F., Tetta, C., Piacibello, W., Sanavio, F., and Bussolino, F. The release of platelet-activating factor from human endothelial cells in culture. Immunology 131: 2397–2403, 1983.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Prescott, S. M., Zimmerman, G. A., and McIntyre, T. M. Human endothelial cells in culture produce platelet-activating factor (1-alky1-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) when stimulated with thrombin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 81: 3534–3538, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sinzinger, R., Firbas, W., and Cromwell, M. Radiation induced alterations in rabbit aortic prostacyclin formation. Prostaglandins 24: 323–329, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Allen, J. B., Sagerman, R. H., and Stuart, M. J. Irradiation decreases vascular prostacyclin formation with no concomitant effect on platelet thromboxane production. Lancet 2: 1193–1196, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fischer-Dzoga, K., Dimitrievich, G. S., and Griem, M. L. Radiosensitivity of vascular tissue. II. Differential radiosensitivity of aortic cells in vitro. Radiat. Res. 99: 536–546, 1984.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson, L. K., Longenecker, J. P., and Fajardo, L. F. Differential radiation response of cultured endothelial cells and smooth muscle myocytes. Anal. Quant. Cytol. 4: 188–198, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hirst, D. G., Denekamp, J., and Hobson, B. Proliferation studies of the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the mouse mesentery after irradiation. Cell Tissue Kinet. 13: 91–104, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Menconi
    • 1
  • L. Taylor
    • 1
  • P. Polgar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations