Psychological Factors in Diabetes Mellitus

  • G. Trikkas
  • M. Benroumbi
  • P. Vareli
  • G. N. Christodoulou
Conference paper


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome characterized by a permanent, absolute or relative lack of insulin1. It is heterogeneous in aetiology and in clinical manifestation. It has been estimated that the incidence of DM in the general population is between 2 and. 6 per cent2.


Psychometric Data Guilt Feeling Endogenous Depression Male Diabetic Psychiatric Aspect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Labhart, “Clinical Endocrinology. Theory and Practice”, Springer-Verlag, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Malins, Diabetes, Lancet ii:1367 (1974.).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Willis, Pharmaceutice Rationalis, in: “The Works of Thomas Willis”, Dring Harper and Leigh, London (1684).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Maudsley, “The Pathology of Mind”, 3rd ed., Appleton, New York (1399).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. B. Cannon, A. T. Shohl and W. S. Wright, Emotional Glucosuria, Am. J. Physiology, 29: 280 (1911).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. C. Menninger, Psychological factors in the aetiology of diabetes, J. Nerv. Ment. Disease 81: 1 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. F. Dianbar, T. P. Wolpe and J. M. Rioch, Psychiatric aspects of medical problems, Am. J. Psychiatry 93: 649 (1936).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. E. Hinkle and S. Wolf, A summary of experimental evidence relating life stress to diabetes mellitus, J. Mount Sinai Hospital 19: 537 (1952).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. P. Stein and E. Charles, Emotional factors in juvenile diabetes mellitus, Diabetes 8: 374 (1971).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Cobb and R. M. Rose, Hypertension, peptic ulcer and diabetes in air traffic controllers. J. A. M. A. 224: 489 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Dunbar, “Psychosomatic Diagnosis”, P. B. Hoeber, New York-London (1943).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. E. Hinkle, The influence of the patient’s behaviour and his reaction to his life situation upon the course of diabetes. Diabetes, 5: 4–06 (1956).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. R. Swift, F. L. Seidman and H. Stein, Adjustment problems in juvenile diabetes, Psychosomatic Medicine 29: 555 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. J. Murawski, B. I. Chazan and M. C. Balodimos, Personality patters in patients with diabetes mellitus of long duration, Diabetes 19: 259 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. F. Koch and G. D. Molnar, Psychiatric aspects of patients with unstable diabetes mellitus, Psychosomatic Medicine 36: 57 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. J. Carroll, Hypothalamic-pituitary function in depressive illness: insensitivity to hypoglycemia, Br. Med. J. 3: 27 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Sanders, J. Mills, F. I. R. Martin and D. J. Horn, Emotional attitudes in adult insulin-dependent diabetics, J. Psychosom. Res. 19: 241 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. Sullivan, Self-esteem and depression in adolescent diabetic girls, Diabetes Care 1: 18 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. H. Wright, J. J. Jacisin, N. S. Radin and R. A. Bell, Glucose metabolism in unipolar depression, Br. J. Psychiatry 132: 386 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Kronfol, J. Greeden and B. Carroll, Psychiatric aspects of diabetes mellitus: Diabetes and depression, Br. J. Psychiatry 138: 172 (1981).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. G. Wilkinson, Psychiatric aspects of diabetes mellitus, Br. J. Psychiatry 138: 1 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O. Fakhri, A. A. Fadhli and R. M. El Rawi, Effect of electroconvulsive therapy on diabetes mellitus, Lancet ii: 775 (1980).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Crammer and C. Gillies, Psychiatric aspects of diabetes mellitus: diabetes and depression, Br. J. Psychiatry 138:171 (1981).Google Scholar
  24. 24..
    S. C. Youdofsky and N. E. Rosenthal, ECT in a depressed patient with adult onset diabetes mellitus, Am. J. Psychiatry 137: 100 (1980).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Foulds, “Personality and personal illess”, Tavistock, London (1965).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch and R. E. Lushene, Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory, Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto (1970).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    W. K. Zung, Depression in the normal adult population. Psychosomatics 12: 164. (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. J. Eysenck and S. B. G. Eysenck, Manual of the E. P. Q., Hodder and Stoughton Educational, London (1975).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. J. Apfel and P. E. Sifneos, Alexithymia: concept and measurement, Psychother. Psychosom. 32: 180 (1979).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. N. Christodoulou, B. H. Alevizos and E. Konstantakakis, Peptic ulcer in adults. Psychopathological, environmental, characterological and hereditary factors, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 39: 55 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. H. C. Surridge, D. L. Williams Erdahl, J. S. Lawson, M. W. Donald, T.N. Monga, C. E. Bird and J. J. Letemendia, Psychiatric aspects of diabetes mellitus, Br. J. Psychiatry 145: 269 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Z. Rihmer and M. Arato, Depression and diabetes mellitus. A study of the relationship between serum Cortisol and blood sugar levels in patients with endogenous depression, Neuropsychobiology 8: 315 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Trikkas
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Benroumbi
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Vareli
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. N. Christodoulou
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Eginition HospitalUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyPolikliniki HospitalAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations