Advertisement

Uremic Toxins pp 189-192 | Cite as

Conversion of Ammonia to Glutamate by L-Glutamic Dehydrogenase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase and NAD+ Immobilized within Lipid-Polyamide Polyethyleneimine Microcapsules

  • Ehud Ilan
  • Thomas Ming Swi Chang
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 223)

Abstract

The use of Albumin-Collodion coated Activated Charcoal (ACAC) hemoperfusion systems for treatment of end-stage renal failure has several advantages over the hemodialysis procedure. With coated charcoal ACAC hemoperfusion, the removal of uremic toxins, such as creatinine, uric acid, and middle molecules, is much more effective than with standard hemodialysis. However, the ACAC hemoperfusion system does not remove water, electrolytes or urea. As the removal of excess water can be achieved with the help of a small ultrafiltrator1,2, the remaining major problems are electrolytes and urea removal.

Keywords

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Uremic Toxin Artificial Cell Polyamide Membrane Middle Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T.M.S. Chang, Biotechnology of artificial cells including application to artificial organs, in: “Comprehensive Biotechnology”, Vol. 4, C.W. Robinson and J.A. Howell, eds., Pergamon Press, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T.M.S. Chang, E. Chirito, P. Barré, C. Cole, and M. Hewish, Clinical performance characteristics of a new combined system for simultaneous hemoperfusion-hemodialysis-ultrafiltration in series. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 21:502 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.M.S. Chang, Semipermeable microcapsules. Science 146:524 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T.M.S. Chang, Semipermeable aqueous microcapsules ("Artificial Cells"): with emphasis on experiments in an extracorporeal shunt system. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs 12:13 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.T. Yu, and T.M.S. Chang, Ultrathin lipid-polymer membrane microcapsules containing multienzymes, cofactors and substrates for multistep enzyme reactions, FEBS Lett. 125:94 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.T. Yu, and T.M.S. Chang, Lipid-polyamide membrane microcapsules immobilized multienzymes and cofactors for sequential conversion of lipophilic and lipophobic substrates, J. Microbial Enzyme Technol. 4:327 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Grunwald, and T.M.S. Chang, Immobilization of alchol dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase and dextran-NAD+ within nylon-polyethyleneimine microcapsules: preparation and cofactor recycling, J. Molec. Catalysis 11:83 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.W. Hill, F.H. Walters, T.D. Wilson, and J.D. Stuart, High performance liquid chromatographic determination of amino acids in the picomole range. Anal. Chem. 51:1338 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehud Ilan
    • 1
  • Thomas Ming Swi Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of MedicineMcGill UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations