Human Mononuclear Cell in Vitro Activation in Microgravity and Post-Spaceflight
The results of postflight and inflight human in vitro lymphocyte experiments have been reviewed. The cumulative data indicate that mitogen-stimulated T-cell proliferation is blunted following short-duration missions. Since similar responses may also be obtained following exposure to non-spaceflight stressors (hypoxia and academic stress), it is unclear if microgravity per se aggravates this response. Our studies indicate that stress-induced impaired PHA- and PWM-stimulated activation can be detected within the first 24 hours in culture at the level of protein synthesis. While the mechanism for neuroendocrine-mediated blunted mitogen stimulated T cell proliferation has not been elucidated, it is not aggravated by autologous plasma and does not require changes in mononuclear cell subpopulations. While prior studies indicate lymphocyte activation is influenced by altering G forces on in vitro cultures, impaired cellular interactions or suboptimal microenvironments related to reduced cell densities in microgravity may contribute to the greatly impaired mitogen stimulated proliferation responses observed on Spacelab flights. It will be necessary to perform lymphocyte functional assays on crewmembers during spaceflight to determine the contribution of microgravity per se on altered human immune competence.
KeywordsChamber Exposure Thymidine Uptake Academic Stress Autologous Plasma Human Mononuclear Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ashman, R. F., 1984, Lymphocyte activation, in: “Fundamental Immunology,” W. E. Paul ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Blalock, J.E., and Smith, E. M., 1985, A complete regulatory loop between the immune and neuroendocrine system, Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 44: 108.Google Scholar
- Canby, T. Y., 1986, Are the soviets ahead in space?, Natl Geographic 170: 420.Google Scholar
- Criswell, B. S., 1986, Cellular immune response experiment MA-031, in: Apollo-Soyuz test project Preliminary Science Report, TM X 581783 U.S. Govt. Printing office Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Kimzey, S.L., 1977, Hematology and Immunology Studies, in: “Biomedical Results From Skylab” NASA SP-377, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Konstantinova, I.V., Nefedov, Y. G., Yeremin, A. V., Drozdova, V.I., Skryabin, A. S., Guseva, D. A., and Mukhina, N.N., 1978, Immunological reactivity and prediction of allergic complications in the crew of the second expedition of Salyut-4, Space Biol Med 12: 16 [translation of Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina 12:15.]Google Scholar
- Meehan, R.T., Dardano, J.R., Neale, L., Yokoyama W., and Taylor, G.R., 1985, Effect of Stress on human lymphocyte activation, Clin. Res. 33: 509A.Google Scholar
- Meehan, R. T., Duncan, U., Neale, L., Waligora, J., and Taylor, G.R., 1985, The use of decompression to simulate the effect of extravehicular activity on human lymphocyte activation, in: “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conf. on Space Physiology.” ESA SP-237Google Scholar
- Nicogossian, A. E., LaPinta, C. K., Burchard, E. C., Hoffler, G.W., and Bartelloni, P. J., 1986, Crew health, in: “The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Medical Report,” NASA SP- 411, U.S. Govt. Printing Office Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Vorob’yev, Y.I., Gazenko, O.G., Genin, A. M., Gurovskiy, N.N., Yegorov, A.D., and Nefedov, Y. G., 1984, Main results of medical studies on Salyut-6-Soyuz program. Space Biol. Med. 18: 27, [Translation of Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Meditsina 18:22].Google Scholar