Advertisement

Anergy and Other Immunologic Perturbances in Mycobacterial Infections

Overview
  • P. H. Lagrange
  • B. Hurtrel
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)

Abstract

The clinical and histologic features of any infectious disease are the result not only of the toxic and invasive properties of the pathogen but of the immune reactions of the host as well. In most cases, the host-immune response leads to a reaction that rapidly eliminates the pathogen, but in other cases the immune mechanisms fail and the outcome of the infection is a fatal one. In still other cases, the host and the pathogen engage in a long drawn-out conflict and the disease becomes chronic. Alternatively, the immune reaction may be abnormal or exaggerated and may damage the host more than the invader. In the case of mycobacteria, it is the cell-mediated immune (CMI) response rather than the production of antibody that appears to be of importance in overcoming the infections. Undoubtedly, antibodies are produced in response to naturally occurring and experimental mycobacterial infections, but there is no evidence that they play any role in host defense. Indeed, there is some evidence that serum factors (possibly antibody) may have harmful effects, through antibody-dependent immunopathology1 or by enhancing the growth of the challenging mycobacteria.2

Keywords

Tuberculin Skin Testing Suppressor Cell Mycobacterial Infection Mycobacterial Antigen Lepromatous Leprosy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chaparas, S. D., 1982, The immunology of mycobacterial infections, C.R.C. Crit. Rev. Microbiol 9: 139–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Forget, A., Benoit, J. C., Turcotte, R., and Gusew-Chartrand, N., 1976, Enhancement activity of anti-mycobacterial sera in experimental Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) infection in mice, Infect. Immun. 13: 1301–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thestrup-Pedersen, K., 1974, Temporary suppression of lymphocyte transformation after tuberculin skin testing, Immunology 27:965–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 3a.
    Snider, D. E. Jr., 1982, The Tuberculin Skin Test, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125(Suppl. 3):108–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    Daniel, T., 1980, The immunology of tuberculosis, Clin. Chest Med. 1:189–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Ridley, D. S., and Jopling, W. H., 1966, Classification of leprosy according to immunity. A five group system, Int. J. Lepr. 69:442–444.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Bloom, B. R., Learning from leprosy: A perspective on immunology and the third world, J. Immunol. 137:1 -10.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Cöloglu, A. S., 1979, Immune complex glomerulonephritis in leprosy, Lepr. Rev. 50:213–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Avrameas, S., 1986, Natural autoreactive B cells and autoantibodies: The “know thyself of the immune system”, Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Immunol.) 137D:150–156.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Rook, G. A. W., 1983, An integrated view of immunology of the mycobacterioses in guinea pigs, mice and men, in: Biology of Mycobacteria ,Vol. 2 (C. Ratledge, and J. Stanford, eds.), pp. 279–319, Academic, London.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Kaplan, G., Weinstein, D. E., Steinman, R. M., Levis, W. R., Elvers, U., Patarroys, E., and Cohn, Z. A. 1985, An analysis of in vitro T cell responsiveness in lepromatous leprosy, J. Exp. Med. 162:917–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Shepard, C. C., 1984, Immunity to leprosy and the Mitsuda reaction, Int. J. Lepr. 52:74–77.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    DeVries, R. R. P., Van Eden, W., and Van Rood, J. J., 1981, HLA-linked control of the course of M. leprae infections, Lepr. Rev. 52:109–119.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Scott, G. C., Russell, D. A., Boughton, C. R., and Vincin, D. R., 1976, Untreated leprosy probability for shifts in Ridley-Jopling classification, Int. J. Lepr. 44: 110–121.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Salgame, P. R., Mahadevan, P. R., and Antia, N. H., 1983, Mechanism of immu-nodepression in leprosy: Presence of suppressor factor(s) from macrophages of lepromatous patients, Infect. Immun. 40:1119–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Van Eden, W., Gonzalez, N. M., De Vries, R. R. P., Convit, J., and Van Rood, J. J., 1985, HLA linked control of predisposition to lepromatous leprosy, J. Infect. Dis. 151:9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    Convit, J., Aranzazu, N., Ulrich, M., Pinardi, M. E., Reyes, O. and Alvarado, J., 1982, Immunotherapy with a mixture of Mycobacterium leprae and BCG in different forms of leprosy and in Mitsuda negative contacts, Int. J. Lepr. 50:415–424.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Haregewoin, A., Longley, J., Bjune, G., Mustafa, A. S., and Godal, T., 1985, The role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in the specific unresponsiveness of lepromatous leprosy to Mycobacterium leprae: Studies in vitro and in vivo, Immunol. Lett. 11:249–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Ottenhoff, T., Elferink, D., and De Vries, R. R. P., 1984, Unresponsiveness to Mycobacterium leprae in lepromatous leprosy in vitro: Reversable or not?, Int. J. Lepr. 52:419–422.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Nath, I., Sathish, M., Jayaraman, T., Bhutani, L. K., and Sharma, A. K., 1984, Evidence for the presence of M. leprae reactive T lymphocytes in patients with lepromatous leprosy, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 58:522–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Nogueira, N., Kaplan, G., Levy, E., Sarno, E. N., Kusher, P., Granelli-Piperno, A., Vieira, L., Colomber Gould, V., Levis, W. R., Steinman, R. M., Yip, Y. K., and Cohn, Z. A., 1983, Defective gamma interferon production in leprosy, reversal with antigen and interleukin 2, J. Exp. Med. 158:2165–2170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Kaplan, G., and Cohn, Z. A., 1985, Cellular immunity in lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy, Immunol. Lett. 11:205–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Stoner, G. L., Mshana, R., Town, R. N., and Belehu, A., 1982, Studies on the defect in cell-mediated immunity in lepromatous leprosy using HLA-D identical siblings. Absence of circulating suppressor cells and evidence that the defect is in the T-lympho-cyte rather than the monocyte population, Scand. J. Immunol. 15:33–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Nath, I., Jayaraman, J. ,Satish, M., Bhutani, L. K., and Sharma, A. K., 1984, Inhibition of interleukin 2 production by adherent cell factors from lepromatous leprosy patients, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 58:531-538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Rooney, J. J. ,Croceo, J. A. ,and Kramer, S., 1976, Further observations on tuberculin reactions in active tuberculosis, Am. J. Med. 60:517–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Proudfoot, A. T. ,1971, Cryptic disseminated tuberculosis, Br. J. Hosp. Med. 5:773.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Grieco, M. H., and Chmel, H., 1974, Acute disseminated tuberculosis, as a diagnostic problem. A clinical study based on twenty-eight cases, Am. Rev. Respir, Dis. 109:554– 560.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Sahn, S. A., and Neff, T. A., 1974, Miliary tuberculosis, Am. J. Med. 56:459–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Nash, D. R., and Douglas, J. E., 1980, Anergy in active tuberculosis: A comparison between positive and negative reactors and an evaluation of 5 TU and 250 TU test doses, Chest 77:32–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    McMurray, D. N., and Echeverri, A., 1978, Cell-mediated immunity in anergic patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 118:827–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Zeitz, S., Ostow, J. H., and Van Arsdel, P. P., Jr., 1974, Humoral and cellular immunity in the anergic tuberculous patients, J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 53:20–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Lenzini, L., Rottoli, P., and Rottoli, L., 1977, The spectrum of human tuberculosis, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 27:230–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Bates, J. H., 1982, Tuberculosis: susceptibility and resistance, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125 (suppl. 3):20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    Rook, G. A. W., Carswell, J. W., and Stanford, J. L., 1976, Preliminary evidence for the trapping of antigen specific lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues of “anergic tuberculosis,“ Clin. Exp. Immunol. 26: 129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Collins, F. M., 1982, The immunology of tuberculosis, Am. J. Rev. Respir. Dis. 125 (suppl. 3):42–49.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    El-Naggar, A., and Higashi, G. I., 1981, Tuberculosis meningitis E Rosette forming lymphocytes in cerebrospinal fluid, Neurology (NY) 31:610–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Berger, H. W., and Mejia, E., 1973, Tuberculous pleurisy, Chest 63:88–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Catanzaro, A., and Barker, A. F., 1976, Immunocompetence of pleural fluid lymphocytes, Clin. Res. 24.-326A.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Ellner, J. J., 1978, Pleural fluid and peripheral blood lymphocyte function in tuberculosis, Ann. Intern. Med. 89:932–933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Jensen, J. R., and Thestrup-Pedersen, K., 1982, In vitro changes in cell-mediated immunity following tuberculin skin testing in humans, Acta. Pathol. Microbiol. Immunol. Scand. [C] 90:109–116.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Tsuyuguchi, I. ,Shiratsuchi, H., Teraoka, O. ,and Hirano, T., 1980, Increase in T cells bearing IgG Fc receptor in peripheral blood of patients with tuberculosis by in vitro stimulation with purified protein derivative, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 121:951–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Ellner, J. J., 1978, Suppressor adherent cells in human tuberculosis, J. Immunol. 121:2573–2579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Katz, P., Goldstein, R. A. ,and Fauci, A. S., 1979, Immunoregulation in infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The presence of suppressor monocytes and the alteration of a subpopulations of T lymphocytes, J. Infect. Dis. 140:12–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Wadee, A. H., Sher, G. L., and Rabson, A. R., 1980, Production of a suppressor factor by human adherent cells treated with mycobacteria, J. Immunol. 125:1380–1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Jaffe, M. I., and Rabson, A. R., 1981, Suppression of L.I.F. production in vitro but not blastogenesis in patients with tuberculous meningitis, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 18:245–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Bona, C., Audibert, F., Juy, D., and Chedid, L., 1976, Cell suppression in PPD induced blast specific response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 26:258–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Tweardy, D. J., Schacter, B. Z., and Ellner, J. J., 1984, Association of altered dynamics of monocytes surface expression of human leukocyte antigen DR with immunosuppression in tuberculosis, J. Infect. Dis. 149:31–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Uberoi, S., Malaviya, A. N., Chattopadhyay, C., Kumar, R., and Shrinivas, X., 1975, Secondary immunodeficiency in miliary tuberculosis, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 22:404–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    Nyka, W., 1963, Studies on M. tuberculosis in lesions of human lung, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 88:670–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Heilman, D. H., and McFarland, W., 1966, Inhibition of tuberculin-induced mitogenesis in culture of lymphocytes from tuberculous donors, Int. Arch. Allergy 30:58–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Bullock, W. E., and Fansal, P., 1971, Studies of immune mechanisms in leprosy. III. The role of cellular and humoral factors in impairment of the in vitro immune response, J. Immunol. 106:888–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Davies, D. H., Corbeil, L., Ward, D., and Ducan, J. R., A humoral suppressor of in vitro lymphocyte transformation responses in cattle with Johne’s disease, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145: 1372–1377.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Ellner, J. J., and Daniel, T. M., 1979, Immunosuppression by mycobacterial ara-binomannan, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 35:250–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Neta, R., and Salvin, S. B., 1979, Adjuvants in the induction of suppressor cells, Infect, Immun. 23:360–365.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Bahr, G. M., Rook, G. A. W., and Stanford, J. L., 1981, Inhibition of the proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to mycobacterial or fungal antigens by co-stimulation with antigen from various mycobacterial species, Immunology 44:593–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Kleinhenz, M. E., Ellner, J. J., Spagnuolo, P. J., and Daniel, T. M., 1981, Suppression of lymphocyte response by tuberculous plasma and mycobacterial arabinogalactan: Monocyte dependence and indomethacin reversibility, J. Clin. Invest. 68:153–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Bahr, G. M., Rook, G. A. W., and Stanford, J. L., 1981, Prostaglandin dependent regulation of the in vitro proliferative response to mycobacterial antigens of peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal donors and from patients with tuberculosis or leprosy, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 45:646–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Mustafa, A. S., and Godal, T. ,1983, In vitro induction of human suppressor T cells by mycobacterial antigens. BCG activated OKT4+ cells mediate suppression of antigen induced T cell proliferation, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 52:29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Wakasugi, N., Virelizier, J. L., Arenzana-Seidedos, F., Rothhut, B., Mencia-Huerta, J. M., Russo-Marie, F., and Fiers, W., 1985, Defective IFN gamma production in the human neonate. III. Role of increased sensitivity to the suppressive effects of prostaglandin E,y. Immunol. 134: 172–178.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Edwards, C. K., Hedegaard, H. B., Zlotnik, A., Gandadharam, P. R., Johnston, R. B., and Pabst, M. J., 1986, Chronic infection due to Mycobacterium intracellular in mice: Association with macrophage release of prostaglandin E2 and reversal by injection of indomethacin, muramyl-dipeptide or interferon-gamma, J. Immunol. 136:1820– 1827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60.
    Harrison, B. D. W., Tugwell, P., and Fawcett, I. W., 1975, Tuberculin reaction in adult Nigerian with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis, Lancet 1:421–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Daniel, T. M., Oxtoby, M. J., Pinto, E. M., and Moreno, E. S., 1981, The immune spectrum in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 123:556–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Persson, I., Ryder, L. P., Nielson, L. S., and Svejgaard, A., 1975, The HLA B7 histocompatibility antigen in sarcoidosis in relation to hypersensitivity, Tissue Antigens 6:50–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Buckley, C. E. III, White, D. H., and Siegler, H. F., 1976, HLA-B7 associated tuberculin hyporesponsiveness in BCG-treated patient, in: HLA and Disease ,Vol. 58 (J. Dausset and L. Degos, eds.), pp. 175–179, INSERM, Paris.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Cox, R. A., Arnold, D. R., Cook, D., and Lundberg, D. I., 1982, HLA phenotypes in Mexican Americans with tuberculosis, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 126:653–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Van Eden, W., De Vries, R. R. P., Stanford, J. L., and Rook, G. A. W., 1983, HLA-DR3 associated genetic control of response to multiple skin tests with tuberculins, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 52:287–292.Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    Lagrange, P. H., Hurtrel, B., Brandely, M., and Thickstun, P. M., 1983, Immunological mechanisms controlling mycobacterial infections, Bull, Eur. Physiopathol. Respir. 19:163–172.Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Gros, P., Skamene, E., and Forget, A., 1981, Genetic control of natural resistance to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in mice. J. Immunol. 127:2417–2421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Brown, I. N., 1983, Animals models and immune mechanisms in mycobacterial infection, in: Biology of Mycobacteria ,Vol. 2 (C. Ratledge and J. Stanford, eds.), pp. 173– 234, Academic, London.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Gray, D. F., 1961, The relative resistance of rats and mice to experimental pulmonary tuberculosis, J. Hyg. (Lond.) 59:471–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Lynch, C. J., Pierce-Chase, C. H., and Dubos, R. J., 1965, A genetic study of susceptibility to experimental tuberculosis in mice infected with mammalian bacilli, J. Exp. Med. 121: 1051–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Forget, A., Skamene, E., Gros, P., Miailhe, A. C., and Turcotte, R., 1981, Differences in response among inbred mouse strains to infection with small doses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Infect. Immun. 32:42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Lewis, P. A., and Loomis, P., 1928, The capacity of guinea pigs to produce antibodies as affected by the inherence and as related to familial resistance to tuberculosis, J. Exp. Med ,47:437–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Lurie, M. B., Abramson, S., and Heppleston, A. G., 1952, On the response of genetically resistant and susceptible rabbits to the quantitative inhalation of human type tubercle bacilli and the nature of resistance to tuberculosis, J. Exp. Med. 95:119–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Kirchheimer, W. F., and Sanchez, R. M. ,1981, Intraspecies differences of resistance against leprosy in nine-banded armadillos, Eepr. India 53:525–530.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Uhr, J. W., and Papenheimer, A. M. ,Jr, 1958, Delayed type hypersensitivity. III. Specific desensitization of guinea pigs to protein antigens, J. Exp. Med ,108:891–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Schlossman, S. F., Levin, H. A., Rocklin, R. E., and David, J. R., 1971, The compart-mentalization of antigen-reactive lymphocytes in desensitized guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 134:741–750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Rich, A. R., 1951, The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis ,Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    Wilson, G. S., Schwabacher, H., and Maier, I. ,1940, The effect of the desensitization of tuberculous guinea-pigs, J. Pathol. 50:89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Hehre, E., and Freund, J.,1939, Sensitization, antibody formation and lesions produced by tubercle bacilli in albino rats, Arch. Pathol. Tab. Med. 27:289–306.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Dwyer, J. M. ,and Kantor, F. S., 1975, In vivo suppression of delayed hypersensitivity: Prolongation of desensitization in guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 142:588–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Rook, G. A. W., 1976, Immunological responses to mycobacteria in mice and men, Proc. R. Soc. Med. 69:442–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Poulter, L. M., 1978, Systemic immunological reactivity in the absence of delayed-type hypersensibility during Mycobacterium lepraemunum infection. Cell. Immunol. 40:117–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Martin, L. N., Gormus, B. J., Wolf, R. H., Gerone, P. J.. Meyers, W. M., Walsh, G. P. ,Binford, C. H., Hadfield, T. L., and Schlager, C. J., 1985, Depression of lymphocyte responses to mitogens in mangabeys with disseminated experimental leprosy, Cell. Immunol. 90:115–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Hoffenbach, A., Lagrange, P. H., and Bach, M. A., 1983, Surface Lyt phenotype of suppressor cells in C57BL/6 mice infected with Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 54: 151 -157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Hoffenbach, A., Lagrange, P. H., and Bach, M. A., 1983, Deficit in interleukin-2 production associated with impaired T cell proliferative responses in Mycobacterium lepraemurium infection, Infect. Immun. 39:109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Colizzi, V., Fergula, J. ,Garreau, F., Malkovsky, M., and Asherson, G. L., 1984, Suppressor cells induced by BCG release non specific factors in vitro ,which inhibit DNA synthesis and interleukin-2 production, Immunology 51:65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Rook, G. A. W., 1975, The immunological consequence of antigen overload in experimental mycobacterial infections of mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 19:166–177.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    Zatz, M. M., 1976, Effects of BCG on lymphocytes trapping, J. Immunol. 116: 1587– 1591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Bullock, W. E., 1976, Perturbation of lymphocyte circulation in experimental murine leprosy. I. Description of the defect, J. Immunol. 117:1164–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Bullock, W. E., 1976, Perturbation of lymphocyte circulation in experimental murine leprosy. II. Nature of defect, J. Immunol. 117:1171–1178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Brown, C. A. ,Brown, I. N., and Sljivic, V. S., 1980, Active suppression masks an underlying enhancement of antibody production in vitro by spleen cells from BCG infected mice, Immunology 40:303–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Bullock, W. E., Carlson, E. M. ,and Gershon, R. K., 1978, The evolution of immunosuppressive cell populations in experimental mycobacterial infection, J. Immunol. 120:1709–1716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Brown, C. A., and Brown, I. N., 1982, Mycobacterium bovis BCG modulation of murine antibody responses: Influence of dose and degree of aggregation of live or dead organisms, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 63:133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Schrier, D. J., Allen, E. M., and Moore, V. L., 1980, BCG induced macrophage suppression in mice: Suppression of specific and nonspecific antibody mediated and cellular mediated immunologic responses, Cell. Immunol. 56:347–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Watson, S. R., and Collins, F. M., 1981, The specific suppressor T cells induced by chronic Mycobacterium avium infection in mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 43:10–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Collins, F. M., and Watson, S. R., 1980, Effect of chemotherapy on suppressor T cells in BCG infected mice, Immunology 40:529–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Alexander, J., 1979, Adoptive transfer of immunity and suppression by cells and serum in early Mycobacterium lepraemurium in mice, Parasite Immunol. 1: 159–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Hoffenbach, A., Lagrange, P. H., and Bach, M. A., 1984, Influence of dose and route of Mycobacterium lepraemurium inoculation on the production of interleukin 1 and interleukin 2 in C57BL/6 mice, Infect. Immun. 44:665–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Hoffenbach, A., Lagrange, P. H., and Bach, M. A., 1985, Strain variation of lympho-kine production and specific antibody secretion in mice infected with Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Cell. Immunol. 91: 1 -11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Bach, M. A., Hoffenbach, A., Lagrange, P. H., Wallach, D., and Cottenot, F., 1983, Mechanisms of T cell unresponsiveness in leprosy, Ann. Immunol. (Paris) 134D:75–84.Google Scholar
  102. 101.
    Colizzi, V., 1984, In vivo and in vitro administration of interleukin 2-containing preparation reverses T-cell unresponsiveness in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, infected mice, Infect. Immun. 45:25–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Orme, I. M., Ratcliffe, M. J. H., and Collins, F. M., 1984, Acquired immunity to heavy infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacilli Calmette Guerin and its relationship to the development of non specific unresponsiveness, Cell, Immunol. 88:285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Nakamura, R. M. ,and Tokunaga, T., 1978, Strain difference of delayed-type hypersensitivity to BCG and its genetic control in mice, Infect. Immun. 22:657–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Lagrange, P. H., Hurtrel, B., and Thickstun, P. M. ,1979, Immunological behavior after mycobacterial infection in selected lines of mice with high or low antibody responses, Infect. Immun. 25:39–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Nakamura, R. M. ,and Tokunaga, T., 1980, Induction of suppressor T cells in delayed-type hypersensitivity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG in low responder mice, Infect. Immun. 28:331–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Nakamura, R. M., Tokunaga, T., and Yamamoto, S., 1980, Difference in antigen presenting activity of macrophages between high or low responder mice in delayed-type hypersensitivity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG, Infect. Immun. 27:268–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Stach, J. L. ,Gros, P., Forget, A., and Skamene, E., 1984, Phenotypic expression of genetically controlled natural resistance to Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), J. Immunol. 132:888–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Denis, M. ,Forget, A. ,Pelletier, M. ,Turcotte, R., and Skamene, E., 1986, Control of the Beg gene of early resistance in mice to infection with BCG strains and atypical mycobacteria, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 63:517–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Pelletier, M. ,Forget, A., Bourrassa, D., Gros, P., and Skamene, E., 1982, Immu-nopathology of BCG infection in genetically resistant and susceptible mouse strains, J. Immunol. 129:2179–2185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Hurtrel, B., Hurtrel, M. ,and Lagrange, P. H., 1985, Genetic control of tuberculin DTH time course, correlation with natural and acquired resistance against BCG, in: Genetic Control of Host Resistance to Infection and Malignancy (E. Skamene, ed.), pp. 305– 312, Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Adu, H. O., Curtis, J., and Turk, J. L., 1981, Difference in cell mediated immune responses of “high resistance and low resistance” mice to non pathogenic mycobac-terium, Scand. J. Immunol. 14:467–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Howard, J. G., Hale, C., and Liew, F. Y. 1981, Immunological regulation of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. IV. Prophylactic effect of sublethal irradiation as a result of abrogation of suppressor T cell generation in mice genetically susceptible to Leishmania tropica, J. Exp. Med. 153:557–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Liew, F. Y., Hale, C., and Howard, J. G., 1982, Immunologic regulation of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. V. Characterization of effector and specific suppressor T cells, J. Immunol. 128: 1917–1922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Liew, F. Y., 1983, Specific suppression of response to Leishmania tropica by a cloned T cell line, Nature (Lond.) 305:630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Adu, H. O., Curtis, J., and Turk, J. L., 1983, The resistance of C57BL/6 mice to subcutaneous infection with Mycobacterium lepraemurium is dependent on both T cells and other cells of bone marrow origin, Cell. Immunol. 78:249–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Leffort, M. J., and Mackaness, G. B., 1977, Suppression of immunity in Mycobacterium lepraemurium infection, Infect. Immun. 18:363–369.Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Brown, I. N., Glynn, A. A., and Plant, J. E., 1982, Inbred mouse strain resistance to Mycobacterium lepraemurium follows the Ity-Lsh pattern, Immunology 47: 149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Lagrange, P. H., and Hurtrel, B., 1979, Local immune response to Mycobacterium lepraemurium in C3H and C57BL/6 mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38:461–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Han, S. H., and Weiser, R. S., 1967, Systemic tuberculin sensitivity in mice. Factors contributing to active tuberculin shock, J. Immunol. 98: 1153–1157.Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Lagrange, P. H., and Stach, J. L., 1985, Strategy control of leprosy Int. J. Lepr. 53:278–288.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. H. Lagrange
    • 1
  • B. Hurtrel
    • 1
  1. 1.Cellular Immunophysiology Unit, Experimental Physiopathology DepartmentInstitut PasteurParisFrance

Personalised recommendations