Interactions of Peptides and Monoamines in Central Neurons: Role of Second Messengers
Our interest in receptor-receptor interactions and the involvement of second messengers started in the late 1960s, with the observation that noradrenaline (NA) and cyclic AMP augment the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, while at the same time directly hyperpolarizing cerebellar Purkinje cells (Siggins et al., 1971; Hoffer et al., 1973). This finding was later extended by the studies of Foote et al. (see 1983) and Woodward et al. (1979), showing that NA, although directly inhibitory, also could enhance both inhibitory and excitatory responses to other transmitters. This augmentation of transmitter responses was termed “neuromodulation” by some but “enabling” by Bloom (1979). Because neuromodulation implies lack of a direct effect by the “neuromodulator”, whereas NA clearly has a direct inhibitory effect on most central neurons, we prefer to use the “enabling” term (see Siggins and Gruol, 1986).
KeywordsPyramidal Neuron Pyramidal Cell Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Pyramidal Cell Layer
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