Thymic Ontogeny and the T-Cell Receptor Genes
The mammalian immune system is composed of a number of well-regulated cells and their products, which provide an effective defense against infection by viruses, bacteria, and parasites. This system can be broadly divided into two interacting components: nonspecific immunity, which is effected by cells such as macrophages and natural killer cells, and specific immunity, which provides the fine tuning and is mediated by B and T lymphocytes. Specific immunity can be further divided into humoral and cell-mediated responses. The humoral response is mediated by B lymphocytes, which secrete immunoglobulins, antigen-specific molecules involved in a number of immune reactions leading to the elimination of antigen (Davies and Metzger, 1983; Honjo, 1983). Regulation of the humoral response and mediation of the cellular response is provided by T lymphocytes, which, unlike B cells, respond exclusively to foreign antigens on the surface of cells, and only recognize these antigens in the context of self class I or class II products encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Class I products are found on all cells within an organism, while class II MHC products are expressed only on lymphoid cells and macrophages, and the inability of T cells to respond to antigen except in the context of these products is known as MHC restriction (Zinkernagel and Doherty, 1974; Katz et al., 1973; Rosenthal and Shevach, 1973).
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Athymic Mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex Restriction Double Negative Cell Thymic Leukemia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Acuto, O., Hussey, R.E., Fitzgerald, K. A., Protentis, J. P., Meuer, S. C., Schlossman, S. F., and Reinherz, E. L., 1985, The human T cell receptor: appearance in ontogeny and biochemical relationship of α and β subunits on IL-2 dependent clones and T cell tumors, Cell 34:717–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bevan, M. J., 1983, Thymic education, in T Lymphocytes Today (J. R. Inglis, ed.), pp. 38–41, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Heilig, J. S., Glimcher, L. H., Kranz, D. M., Clayton, L. K., Greenstein, J. L., Saito, H., Maxam, A. M., Burakoff, S. J., Eisen, H. N., and Tonegawa, S., 1985, Expression of the T-cell specific γ gene is unnecessary in T cells recognizing class II MHC determinants, Nature 317:68–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hunig, T., 1983, T cell function and specificity in athymic mice, in: T Lymphocytes Today (J. R. Inglis, ed.), pp. 42–45, Elsevier Science Publisher, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Kishihara, K., Yoshikai, Y., Matsuzakai, G., Mak, T. W., Nomoto, K., 1987, Functional α and β chain T cell receptor messages can be detected in old, but not young, athymic mice, Eur. J., Immunol. (in press).Google Scholar
- Minowada, J., Minato, K., Srivastava, B. I. S., Nakazawa, S., Kubonishi, I., Tatsumi, E., Ohnuma, T., Ozer, H., Freeman, A. I., Henderson, E. S., and Gallo, R. C., 1982. A model scheme of human hematopoietic cell differentiation as determined by leukemia-lymphoma study: T-cell lineages, in: Current Concepts in Human Immunology and Cancer Immunomodulation (Serrou, B., Rosenfeld, C., Daniels, J. C., and Saunders, J. P., eds.), Elsevier Biomedical Press B. V.Google Scholar
- Minowada, J., Minato, K., Tatsumi, E., Sugimoto, T., Nakazawa, S., Ohnuma, T., Kubonishi, I., Miyoshi, I., Frankel, A., and Gallo, R. C., 1983. A model scheme for human hematopoietic cell differentiation as determined by multiple markers of leukemia-lymphomas, In: Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Vol. 28 (Neth, R., Gallo, R., Greaves, M., Moore, O., and Winkler, F., eds.), pp. 348–350, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
- Scollay, R., 1983, Intrathymic events in the differentiation of T lymphocytes: a continuing enigma, in: T Lymphocytes Today (J. R. Inglis, ed.), pp. 52–56, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Takacs, L., Osawa, H., and Diamentstein, T., 1984, Detection and localization by the monoclonal anti-interleukin-2 receptor antibody AMT-13 of IL2 receptor-bearing cells in the developing thymus of the mouse embryo and in the thymus of cortisone-treated mice, Eur. J. Immunol. 14:1152–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zinkernagel, R. M., Althage, A., Waterfield, E., Kindred, B., Welsh, R. M., Callahan, G., and Pincetl, P., 1980, Restriction specificities, alloreactivity, and allotolerance expressed by T cells from nude mice reconstituted with H-2 compatible or incompatible thymus grafts, J. Exp. Med. 151:376–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar