Selective Modulation of FSH and LH Secretion by Steroids

  • V. B. Mahesh
  • L. L. Murphy
  • J. L. O’Conner
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 219)


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by the anterior pituitary are important regulators of male and female reproductive processes. The hypothalamic hormone luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) has been shown to regulate the release of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary (Schally et al., 1971). Extensive work has been done on the interaction between gonadal steroids, hypothalamic LHRH and the anterior pituitary in the synthesis and release of LH and this topic has been reviewed by Kalra and Kalra (1983). The regulation of the secretion of FSH, however, cannot be explained adequately with LHRH as the sole regulatory hypothalamic hormone; this is due to a significant divergence between FSH and LH secretion during the ovulatory cycle (Bast and Greenwald, 1974; Smith et al., 1975), after ovariectomy in the rat (Mahesh et al., 1972; Tapper et al., 1972; Zanisi and Martini, 1975a) and during puberty (Dohler and Wuttke, 1975; Payne et al., 1977). This chapter will review the current concepts concerning the role of (a) specific FSH releasing and inhibiting peptides, (b) neuroendocrine control of FSH secretion and (c) steroid hormones in the divergent secretion of FSH and LH.


Luteinizing Hormone Follicle Stimulate Hormone Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Gonadotropin Secretion Luteinizing Hormone Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aiyer MS, Fink G, 1974. The role of sex steroid hormones in modulating the responsiveness of the anterior pituitary gland to LHRF in the female rat. J Endocrinol 62:553–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashiru OA, Blake CA, 1979. Stimulation of endogeneous FSH release during estrus by exogenous FSH or LH at proestrus in the phenobarbital-blocked rat. Endocrinology 105:1162–1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashiru OA, Blake CA, 1980. Variations in the effectiveness with which rat follicle-stimulating hormone can stimulate its own secretion during the rat estrous cycle. Endocrinology 106:476–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashiru OA, Rush ME, Blake CA, 1981. Further studies on the effectiveness with which exogenous LH and FSH stimulate the release of endogenous FSH during the rat estrous cycle. J Endocrinol 88:103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks JA, Freeman ME, 1978. The temporal requirement of progesterone on proestrus for the extinction of the estrogen induced daily signal controlling luteinizing hormone release in the rat. Endocrinology 102:426–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banks JA, Mick C, Freeman ME, 1980. A possible cause for the differing responses of the LH surge mechanisms of ovariectomized rats to short-term exposure to estradiol. Endocrinology 106:1677–1681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bast JD, Greenwald GS, 1974. Serum profiles of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin during the estrous cycle of the hamster. Endocrinology 94:1295–1299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belchetz PE, Plant TM, Nakai Y, Keogh EJ, Knobil E, 1978. Hypophysial responses to continuous and intermittent delivery of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone. Science 202:631–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blake CA, Metcalf JP, Hendricks SE, 1982. Anterior pituitary gland secretion after forebrain ablation: periovulatory gonadotropin release. Endocrinology 111:789–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowers CY, Currie BL, Johansson KNG, Folkers K, 1973. Biological evidence that separate hypothalamic hormones release the follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 50:20–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caligaris L, Astrada JJ, Taleisnik S, 1968. Stimulating and inhibiting effects of progesterone on the release of luteinizing hormone. Acta Endocrinol 59:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caligaris L, Astrada JJ, Taleisnik S, 1971. Release of LH induced by estrogen injection in ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 88:810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang RJ, Jaffe RB, 1978. Progesterone effects on gonadotropin release in women pretreated with estradiol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47:119–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chappel SC, Barraclough CA, 1976. Hypothalamic regulation of pituitary FSH secretion. Endocrinology 98:927–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chappel SC, 1979. Cyclic fluctuations in ovarian FSH-inhibiting material in golden hamsters. Biol Reprod 21:447–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chappel SC, Norman RL, Spies HG, 1979. Evidence for a specific neural event that controls the estrous release of FSH in golden hamsters. Endocrinology 104:169–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng YJ, Karavolas HJ, 1973. Conversion of progesterone to 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione and 3α -hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one by rat medial basal hypothalami and the effects of estradiol and stage of estrous cycle on the conversion. Endocrinology 93:1157–1162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coutifaris C, Chappel SC, 1982. Intraventricular injection of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during proestrus stimulates the rise in serum FSH on estrus in phenobarbital-treated hamsters through a central nervous system dependent mechanism. Endocrinology 110:105–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davies AG, Duncan IF, Lynch SS, 1975. Autoradiographic localization of 125I-labelled FSH in the rat hypothalamus. J Endocrinol 66:301–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DePaolo LV, Shander D, Wise PM, Barraclough CA, Channing CP, 1979. Identification of inhibin-like activity in ovarian venous plasma of rats during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 105:647–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dohler KD, Wuttke W, 1975. Changes with age in levels of serum gonadotropins, prolactin and gonadal steroids in prepubertal male and female rats. Endocrinology 97:898–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drouin J, Labrie F, 1981. Interactions between 17β -estradiol and progesterone in the control of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 108:52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. El Ayat AAB, Mahesh VB, 1984. Stimulation of 17β -hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in the rat anterior pituitary gland by progesterone. J Steroid Biochem 20:1141–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eldridge JC, Dmowski WP, Mahesh VB, 1974. Effects of castration of immature rats on serum FSH and LH, and of various steroid treatments after castration. Biol Reprod 10:438–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eldridge JC, Mahesh VB, 1974. Pituitary-gonadal axis before puberty: evaluation of testicular steroids in the male rat. Biol Reprod 11:385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Everett JW, 1948. Progesterone and estrogens in the experimental control of ovulation time and other features of the estrous cycle in the rat. Endocrinology 43:389–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Freeman MC, Dupke KC, Croteau CM, 1976. Extinction of the estrogen induced daily signal for LH release in the rat: a role for the proestrous surge of progesterone. Endocrinology 99:223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilles PA, Karavolas HJ, 1981. Effect of 20α -dihydroprogesterone, progesterone, and their 5α-reduced metabolites on serum gonadotropin levels and hypothalamic LHRH content. Biol Reprod 24:1088–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Goodman RL, 1978. A quantitative analysis of the physiological role of estradiol and progesterone in the control of tonic and surge secretion of luteinizing hormone in the rat. Endocrinology 102:142–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greeley GH, Allen MB, Mahesh VB, 1975. Potentiation of LH release by estradiol at the level of the pituitary. Neuroendocrinology 18:233–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto K, Yazaki C, Igarashi M, 1981. Regulation of the second surge of FSH; effects of anti-LHRH serum and pentobarbital. Endocrinology 109:130–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Helmond FA, Simons PA, Heim PR, 1980. The effect of progesterone on estrogen induced LH and FSH release in the female rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 107:478–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Helmond FA, Simons PA, Heim PR, 1981. Strength and duration characteristics of the facilitory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on the estrogen induced gonadotropin surge in the female rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 108:1837–1842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holzbauer M, 1975. Physiological variations in the ovarian production of 5α-pregnane derivatives with sedative properties of the rat. J Steroid Biochem 6:1307–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hseuh AJW, Erickson GF, Yen SSC, 1979. The sensitizing effect of estrogens and catechol estrogen on cultured pituitary cells to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: its antagonism by progestins. Endocrinology 104:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ichikawa S, Sawada T, Nakamura Y, Morioka H, 1974. Ovarian secretion of pregnane compounds during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in rats. Endocrinology 94:1615–1620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ichikawa S, Morioka H, Sawada T, 1971. Identification of the neutral steroids in the ovarian venous plasma of LH-stimulated rats. Endocrinology 88:372–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Igarashi M, Nallar R, McCann SM, 1973. Existence of FSH-RF distinct from LHRH. In: Hatotani, H. (ed.), Psychoneuroendocrinology. Basel:Karger pp. 178–186Google Scholar
  39. Igarashi M, McCann SM, 1974. A hypothalamic follicle stimulating hormone releasing factor. Endocrinology 74:446–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kalra SP, Ajika K, Krulich L, Fawcett CP, Quijada M, McCann SM, 1971. Effects of hypothalamic and preoptic electrochemical stimulation on gonadotropin and prolactin release in proestrous rats. Endocrinology 88:1150–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kalra SP, Kalra PS, 1983. Neural regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in the rat. Endocr Rev 4:311–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karavolas HJ, Hodges DR, O’Brien DJ, MacKenzie KM, 1979. In vivo uptake of [3H] progesterone and [3]-5α-dihydroprogesterone by rat brain and pituitary and effects of estradiol and time: tissue concentration of progesterone itself or specific metabolites? Endocrinology 104:1418–1425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kao LWL, Weisz J, 1975. Direct effect of testosterone and its 5α-reduced metabolites on pituitary LH and FSH release in vitro: change in pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic extract. Endocrinology 96:253–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kimura F, Kawakami M, 1978. Reanalysis of the preoptic afferent involved in the surge of LH, FSH and prolactin release in the proestrous rat. Neuroendocrinology 27:74–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krause JE, Bertics PJ, Karavolas HJ, 1981. Ovarian regulation of hypothalamic and pituitary progestin-metabolizing enzyme activities. Endocrinology 108:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krey LC, Tyrey L, Everett JW, 1973. The estrogen-induced advance in the cyclic LH surge in the rat: dependency on ovarian progesterone secretion. Endocrinology 93:385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lagace L, Massicotte J, Labrie F, 1980. Acute stimulatory effects of progesterone on luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 106:684–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Legan SJ, Coon GA, Karsch FJ, 1975. Role of estrogen as initiator of daily LH surges in the ovariectomized rat. Endocrinology 96:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Legan SJ, Karsch FJ, 1975. A daily signal for the LH surge in the rat. Endocrinology 96:57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Leyendecker G, Wardlaw S, Nocke W, 1972. Experimental studies on the endocrine regulations during the periovulatory phase of the human menstrual cycle. Acta Endocrinol 71:160–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lincoln GA, 1979. Differential control of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone by luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the ram. J Endocrinol 80:133–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ling N, Ying S-Y, Veno XI, Esch F, Denoroy L, Guillemin R, 1985. Isolation ad partial characterization of a Mr 32,000 protein with inhibin activity from follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci 82:7217–7221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ling N, Ying S-Y, Veno N, Shimasaki S, Esch F, Hotta M, Guillemin R, 1986. Pituitary FSH is released by a heterodimer of the a-subunits from the two forms of inhibin. Nature 321:779–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu JH, Yen SSC, 1983. Induction of midcycle gonadotropin surge by ovarian steroids in women: a critical evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57:797–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lumpkin MD, McCann SM, 1982. Effect of hypothalamic lesions and steroids on the selective control of FSH secretion. Fed Proc 41:984Google Scholar
  56. Lundanes E, Tsuji K, Rampold G, Ohta M, Folkers K, 1980. Studies on the follicle stimulating hormone releasing hormone by radioimmunoassay and bioassays. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 94:827–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lutjen PJ, Findlay JK, Trownson AO, Leeton JF, Chan LK, 1986. Effect of plasma gonadotropins on cyclic steroid replacement in women with premature ovarian failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:419–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mahesh VB, Muldoon TG, Eldridge JC, Korach KS, 1972. Studies on the regulation of FSH and LH secretion by gonadal steroids. In: Saxena BB, Beling CG, Gandy HM, (eds.), Gonadotropins. New York: Wiley-Interscience, pp. 730–742Google Scholar
  59. Mahesh VB, O’Conner JL, Allen MB, 1980. In vivo models for the study of pituitary-gonadal relationships. In: Mahesh VB, Muldoon TG, Saxena BB, Sadler WA, (eds.), Functional Correlates of Hormone Receptors in Reproduction. New York:Elsevier, pp. 45–61Google Scholar
  60. Mahesh VB, Murphy LL, Peduto JC, 1984. Modulation of FSH and LH secretion by progesterone and its metabolites. In: Martini L, Gordon GS, Sciarra F, (eds.), Sterols, Steroids and Bone Metabolism, Steroid Modulation of Neuroendocrine Function Research on Steroids. New York: Elsevier, pp. 71–88Google Scholar
  61. Mahesh VB, Muldoon TG, 1987. Integration of the effects of estradiol and progesterone in the modulation of gonadotropin secretion. J Steroid Biochem, In PressGoogle Scholar
  62. Mann DR, Barraclough CA, 1973. Role of estrogen and progesterone in facilitating LH release in 4-day cyclic rats. Endocrinology 93:694–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. March CM, Goebelsmann U, Nakamura RM, Mishell DR, 1979. Roles of estradiol and progesterone in eliciting the midcycle LH and FSH surges. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49:507–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Martin JE, Tyrey L, Everett JW, 1974. Estrogen and progesterone modulation of the pituitary response to LRF in the cyclic rat. Endocrinology 95:1664–1673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mason AJ, Haylfick JS, Ling N, Esch F, Veno N, Yung SY, Guillemin R, Niall H, Seeburg PH, 1985. Complementary DNA sequences of ovarian follicular inhibin show precursor structure and homology with transforming growth factor-3. Nature 318:659–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCann SM, 1962. Effect of progesterone on plasma luteinizing hormone activity. Am J Physiol 202:601–604Google Scholar
  67. McCormack CE, Bennin B, 1970. Delay of ovulation caused by exposure to continuous light in immature rats treated with pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin. Endocrinology 86:611–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McCullagh DR, 1932. Dual endocrine activity of the testis. Science 76:19–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McPherson JC, Costoff A, Eldridge JC, Mahesh VB, 1974a. Effects of various progestational preparations on gonadotropin secretion in ovariectomized immature female rats. Fertil Steril 25:1063–1070Google Scholar
  70. McPherson JC, Eldridge JC, Costoff A, Mahesh VB, 1974b. The pituitary-gonadal axis before puberty: effects of various estrogenic steroids in the ovariectomized rat. Steroids 24:41–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McPherson JC, Costoff A, Mahesh VB, 1975. Influence of estrogen-progesterone combinations on gonadotropin secretion in castrate female rats. Endocrinology 91:771–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McPherson JC, Mahesh VB, 1979. Dose-related effect of a single injection of progesterone on gonadotropin secretion and pituitary sensitivity to LHRH in estrogen-primed castrated female rats. Biol Reprod 20:763–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Miyamoto K, Hasegawa Y, Fukuda M, Nomura M, Igarashi M, Kangawa K, Matuso H, 1985. Isolation of porcine follicular fluid inhibin of 32K daltons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 129:396–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mizunuma H, Samson WK, Lumpkin MD, Moltz JH, Kawcett CP, McCann SM, 1983. Purification of a bioactive FSH-releasing factor (FSH-RF). Brain Res Bull 10:623–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Murphy LL, Mahesh VB, 1984a. Selective release of follicle-stimulating hormone by 5α -dihydroprogesterone in immature ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats. Biol Reprod 30:594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murphy LL, Mahesh VB, 1984b. Selective release of luteinizing hormone by 3α -hydroxy-5α -pregnan-20-one in immature ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats. Biol Reprod 30:795–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Murphy LL, Mahesh VB, 1985. Selective release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by 5α-dihydroprogesterone and 3α,5α — tetrahydro-progesterone in pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin primed immature rats exposed to constant light. Biol Reprod 32:795–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nallar R, Antunes-Rodrigues J, McCann S, 1966. Effects of progesterone on the level of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in normal female rats. Endocrinology 79:907–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Norman RL, Blake CA, Sawyer CH, 1973. Estrogen-dependent twenty-four hour periodicity in pituitary LH release in the female hamster. Endocrinology 93:965–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nowak FV, Nuti KM, Karavolas HJ, 1976. Quantative changes in the metabolism of 20α-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one by rat hypothalamus and pituitary during proestrus. Steroids 28:509–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nuti KM, Karavolas HJ, 1977. Effect of progesterone and its 5α-reduced metabolites on gonadotropin levels in estrogen primed ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology 100:777–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ojeda SR, Ramirez VD, 1969. Automatic control of LH and FSH secretion by short feedback circuits in immature rats. Endocrinology 84:786–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ojeda SR, Ramirez VD, 1970. Failure of estrogen to block compensatory ovarian hypertrophy in prepubertal rats bearing medial basal hypothalamic FSH implants. Endocrinology 86:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ojeda SR, Jameson HE, McCann SM, 1972. Hypothalamic areas involved in prostaglandin (PG)-induced gonadotropin release. II. Effect of PGE2 and PCE2a implants on follicle stimulating hormone release. Endocrinology 100:1595–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Payne AH, Kelch RP, Murono EP, Kerlan JT, 1977. Hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular function during sexual maturation of the male rat. J Endocrinol 72:17–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peduto JC, Mahesh VB, 1985. Effects of progesterone on hypothalamic and plasma LHRH. Neuroendocrinology 40:238–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pickering AJMC, Fink G, 1977. A priming effect of luteinizing hormone releasing factor with respect to release of follicle-stimulating hormone in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinol 75:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pohl CR, Richardson DW, Hutchinson JS, Germak JA, Knobil E, 1983. Hypophysiotropic signal frequency and the functioning of the pituitary-ovarian system in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 112:2076–2080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ramirez VD, Sawyer CH, 1974. Differential dynamic responses of plasma LH and FSH to ovariectomy and to a single injection of estrogen in the rat. Endocrinology 94:987–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rivier J, Spiess J, McClintock R, Vaughan J, Vale W, 1985. Purification and partial characterization of inhibin from follicular fluid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 133:120–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rivier C, Rivier J, Vale W, 1986. Inhibin-mediated feedback control of follicle stimulating hormone secretion in the female rat. Science 234:205–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Robertson DM, Foulds LM, Leversha L, Morgan FJ, Hearn MTW, Burger HG, Wettenhall REH, deKrester DM, 1985. Isolation of inhibin from bovine follicular fluid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 126:220–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robertson DM, deVos FL, Foulds LM, Mchachlan RI, Burger HG, Morgan FJ, Hearn MTW, deKrester DM, 1986. Isolation of a 31 kDa form of inhibin from bovine follicular fluid. Molec Cell Endocr 44:271–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rush ME, Ashiru OA, Blake CA, 1980. Hypothalamic-pituitary interactions during the periovulatory secretion of FSH in the rat. Endocrinology 107:649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rush M, Ashiru OA, Lipner H, Williams AT, McRae C, Blake CA, 1981. The actions of porcine follicular fluid and estradiol on periovulatory secretion of gonadotropin hormones in rats. Endocrinology 108:2316–2323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rush ME, Ashiru OA, Blake CA, 1982. Effects of complete hypothalamic deafferentation on the estrous phase of FSH release the cyclic rat. Biol Reprod 26:399–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schally AV, Arimura A, Kastin AJ, Matsuo H, Baba Y, Redding TW, Nair RMG, Debeljuk L, White WF, 1971. Gonadotropin releasing hormone: one polypeptide regulates secretion of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone. Science 173:1036–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schally AV, Redding JW, Arimura A, 1973. Effect of sex steroids on pituitary responses to LH- and FSH-releasing hormone in vitro. Endocrinology 93:893–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schally AV, Arimura A, Redding TW, Debeljuk L, Carter W, DuPont A, Vilchez-Martinez JA, 1976. Reexamination of porcine and bovine hypothalamic fractions for additional luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone releasing activities. Endocrinology 98:380–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwartz NB, Channing CP, 1977. Evidence of ovarian “inhibin”: suppression of the secondary rise in serum follicle stimulating hormone levels in proestrous rats by injection of porcine follicular fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:5721–5724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwartz NB, Talley WL, 1978. Effects of exogenous LH or FSH on endogenous FSH, progesterone and estradiol secretion. Biol Reprod 17:820–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shahmanesh M, Jeffcoate SL, 1976. Absence of an immunologically distinct FSH-RF in rat stalk median eminence extracts. J Endocrinol 68:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shander D, Goldman B, 1978. Ovarian steroid modulation of gonadotropin secretion and pituitary responsiveness to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in female hamsters. Endocrinology 103:1383–1393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shaw RW, Butt WD, London DR, 1975. The effect of progesterone on LH and FSH response to LHRH in normal women. Clin Endocrinol 4:543–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Smanik EJ, Young HK, Muldoon TG, Mahesh VB, 1983. Analysis of the effect of progesterone in vivo on estrogen receptor distribution in the rat anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Endocrinology 113:15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Smith MS, Freeman ME, Neill JD, 1975. The control of progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat-prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with the rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy. Endocrinology 96:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stupnicka E, Massa R, Zanisi M, Martini L, 1977. Role of anterior pituitary and hypothalamic metabolism of progesterone in the control of gonadotropin secretion. In: Hubinont PO, L’Hermite M, Robyne CS, (eds.). Clinical Reproductive Neuroendocrinology. Basel: Karger AG, pp. 88–95Google Scholar
  108. Tabei T, Haga H, Heinrichs WL, Herman WL, 1974. Metabolism of progesterone by rat brain, pituitary gland and other tissues. Steroids 23:651–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Tang LKL, Spies HG, 1975. Effect of gonadal steroids on the basal and LRF-induced gonadotropin secretion by cultures of rat pituitary. Endocrinology 96:349–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tapper CM, Naftolin F, Brown-Grant K, 1972. Influence of the reproductive state at the time of operation on the early response to ovariectomy in the rat. J Endocrinol 53:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Turgeon JL, Waring DW, 1982. Differential changes in the rate and pattern of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion from pituitaries of cyclic rats superfused in vitro. Endocrinology 111:66–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Uberoi NK, Hendry LB, Muldoon TG, Myers RB, Segaloff A, Bransome ED, Mahesh VB, 1985. Structure-activity relationships of some unique estrogens related to estradiol are predicted by fit into DNA. Steroids 45:325–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vale W, Rivier J, Vaughan J, McClintock R, Corrigan A, Woo W, Karr D, Spiess J, 1986. Purification and characterization of an FSH-releasing protein from porcine ovarian follicular fluid. Nature 321:776–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wildt L, Hansler A, Marshall G, Hutchinson JS, Plant TM, Belchetz PE, Knobil E, 1981. Frequency and amplitude of GnRH stimulation and gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 109:376–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wise PM, Ranee N, Barr GD, Barraclough CA, 1979. Further evidence that LHRH also is FSH-RH. Endocrinology 104:940–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zanisi M, Martini L, 1975a. Differential effects of castration on LH and FSH secretion in male and female rats. Acta Endocrinol 78:683–688Google Scholar
  117. Zanisi M, Martini L, 1975b. Effect of progesterone metabolites on gonadotropin secretion. J Steroid Biochem 6:1021–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zanisi M, Martini L, 1979. Interaction of oestrogen and of physiological progesterone metabolites in the control of gonadotropin secretion. J Steroid Biochem 11:855–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. B. Mahesh
    • 1
  • L. L. Murphy
    • 1
  • J. L. O’Conner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and EndocrinologyMedical College of GeorgiaAugustaUSA

Personalised recommendations