Role of Placental Lactogen and Prolactin in Human Pregnancy

  • Stuart Handwerger
  • Michael Freemark
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 219)


Placental lactogen and prolactin along with growth hormone form a family of protein hormones with striking homologies in chemical and biological properties (Josimovich and McLaren, 1962; Sherwood et al., 1971). The three hormones have molecular weights in the range of 22–24 kD and exhibit both lactogenic and somatotrophic properties (Table 1). Human placental lactogen (hPL; human chorionic somatomammotrophin, hCS) is synthesized by the syncytiotrophoblast cells of the placenta, the same cells which synthesize and secrete human chorionic gonadotropin. Human prolactin during pregnancy is synthesized and secreted by both the anterior pituitary gland and the decidua.


Growth Hormone Amniotic Fluid Growth Hormone Receptor Placental Lactogen Human Placental Lactogen 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams SO, Nissley SP, Handwerger S, Rechler MM, 1983. Developmental patterns of insulin-like growth factor I and II synthesis and regulation in rat fibroblasts. Nature 302:150–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen JR, 1982. Prolactin in amniotic fluid and maternal serum during uncomplicated human pregnancy. Dan Med Bull 29:266–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arezzuni C, DeGori V, Tarli P, Neri P, 1972. Weight increase of body and lymphatic tissue in dwarf mice treated with human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 141:98–100Google Scholar
  4. Ballard PL, Gluckman PD, Breheir A, Kitterman JA, Kaplan SL, Rudolph AM, Grumbach MM, 1978. Failure to detect an effect of prolactin on pulmonary surfactant and adrenal steroids in fetal sheep and rabbits. J Clin Invest 62:879–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barberia JM, Abu-Fadel S, Kletzky OA, Nakamura RM, Mishell DR, 1975. Serum prolactin levels in early human gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121:1107–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck P, Daughaday WH, 1967. Human placental lactogen: Studies of its acute metabolic effects and disposition in normal man. J Clin Invest 46:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berle P, Finsterwalder E, Apostolakis M, 1974. Comparitive studies on the effect of human growth hormone, human prolactin and human placental lactogen on lipid metabolism. Horm Metab Res 6:347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bigazzi M, Rongo R, Lancranjan I, Ferraro S, Branconi F, Buzzoni P, Martorana G, Scarselli GF, Del Pozo E, 1979. A pregnancy in an acromegalic women during bromocriptine treatment: Effects of growth hormone and prolactin in the maternal, fetal and amniotic compartments. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48:9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breuer CB, 1969. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cartilage of hypophy-sectomized rats by native and modified placental lactogen and available hormones. Endocrinology 85:989–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler SR, Hurley TW, Schanberg SM, Handwerger S, 1978. Ovine placental lactogen stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in brain and liver of neonatal rats. Life Sci. 22:2073–2078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan JSD, Robertson HA, Friesen HG, 1976. Purification and characterization of ovine placental lactogen. Endocrinology 98:65–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clements JA, Reyes FI, Winter JSD, Faiman C, 1977. Studies on human sexual development. IV. Fetal pituitary and serum and amniotic fluid concentration of prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:408–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clements J, Whitfeld P, Cooke N, Healy D, Matheson B, Shine J, Funde J, 1983. Expression of the prolactin gene in human decidua-chorion. Endocrinology 112:1133–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Contractor SF, Davies H, 1973. Effect of human chorionic somatomam-motrophin and human chorionic gonadotropin on phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation. Nat New Biol 243:284–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emane MN, Delouis C, Kelly PA, Dijane J, 1986. Evolution of prolactin and placental lactogen receptors in ewes during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinology 118:695–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ensor DM, 1978. Comparative Endocrinology of Prolactin. London: Chapman and Hall, LTDGoogle Scholar
  17. Fang VS, Kim MH, 1975. Study on maternal, fetal, and amniotic human prolactin at term. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41:1030–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Felber JP, Zaragoza N, Benuzzi-Badoni M, Genazzani AR, 1972. The double effect of human chorionic somatomammotropin (HCS) and pregnancy on lipogenesis and lipolysis in the isolated rat epididymal fat pad and fat pad cells. Hormone Metab Res 4:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frankenne F, Hennen G, Parks JS, Nielsen PV, 1986. A gene deletion in the hGH/hCS gene cluster could be responsible for the placental expression of hGH and/or hCS like molecule absent in normal subjects. Proceedings of the 68th Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Anaheim, CA, June, Abstract #388Google Scholar
  20. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1982. Ovine placental lactogen stimulates amino acid transport in rat diaphragm. Endocrinology 110:2201–2203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1983. Ovine placental lactogen, but not growth hormone, stimulates amino acid transport in fetal rat diaphragm. Endocrinology 112:402–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1984a. Ovine placental lactogen stimulates glycogen synthesis in fetal rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 246:E21–E24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1984b. Synergistic effects of ovine placental lactogen and insulin on glycogen metabolism in fetal rat hepatocytes. Am J Physiol 247:E714–E718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1985. Ovine placental lactogen inhibits glucagon-induced glycogenolysis in fetal rat hepatocytes. Endocrinology 116:1275–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freemark M, Handwerger S, 1986. The glycogenic effects of placental lactogen and growth hormone in ovine fetal liver are mediated through binding to specific fetal oPL receptors. Endocrinology 118:613–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freemark M, Comer M, Handwerger S, 1986. PL and GH binding sites in sheep liver: Striking differences in ontogeny and function. Am J Physiol 251:E328–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Freemark M, Comer M, Korner G, Handwerger S, 1987. A unique PL receptor: Implications for fetal growth. Endocrinology, in pressGoogle Scholar
  28. Fukamatsu Y, Tornita K, Fukuta T, 1984. Further evidence of prolactin production from human decidua and its transport across fetal membrane. Gynecol Obstet Invest 17:309–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Furlanetto RW, Underwood LE, Van Wyk JJ, Handwerger S, 1978. Serum immunoreactive somatomedin-C is elevated late in pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47: 695–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gluckman PD, Ballard PL, Kaplan SL, Liggins GC, Grumbach MM, 1978. Prolactin in umbilical cord blood and the respiratory distress syndrome. J Ped 93:1011–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gluckman PD, Butler JH, 1983. Partutition-related changes by insulinlike growth factors I and -II in the perinatal lamb. J Endocrinol 99:223–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gluckman PD, Kaplan SL, Rudolph AM, Grumbach MM, 1979. Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus. II. Ovine chorionic somatommotropin in mid-and late gestation in the fetal and maternal circulation. Endocrinology 104:1828–1833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Golander A, Barrett J, Hurley T, Barry S, Handwerger S, 1979a. Failure of bromocriptine, dopamine and thyrotropin-releaseing hromone to affect prolactin secretion by decidual tissue in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 49:787–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Golander A, Hurley T, Barrett J, Handwerger S, 1979b. Synthesis of prolactin by human decidua in vitro. J Endocrinol 82:263–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Golander A, Hurley T, Barrett J, Hizi A, Handwerger S, 1978. Prolactin synthesis by human chorion-decidual tissue: A possible source of amniotic fluid prolactin. Science 202:311–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL, 1964. On the placental origin and purification of chorionic “growth hormone-prolactin” and its immunoassay in pregnancy. Trans NY Acad Sci 27:167–188Google Scholar
  37. Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL, Abrams CL, Beel JJ, Conte FA, 1966. Plasma free fatty acid response to the administration of chronic growth hormone-prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 26:478–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL, Sciarra JJ, Burr IM, 1968. Chorionic growth hormone-prolactin (CGP): Secretion, disposition, biologic activity in man, and postulated function as the “growth hormone” of the second half of pregnancy. Ann NY Acad Sci 148:501–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hall K, Enberg G, Hellen E, Lundin G, Ottoson-Seeberger A, Sara V, Trystad O, Ofverholm V, 1984. Somatomedin levels in pregnancy. Longitudinal study in healthy subjects and patients with growth hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59:587–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hamosh M, Hamosh P, 1977. The effect of prolactin on the lecithin content of fetal rabbit lung. J Clin Invest 59:1002–1005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Handwerger S, Barry S, Barrett J, Markoff E, Zeitler P, Cwikel B, Siegel M, 1981. Inhibition of the synthesis and secretion of decidual prolactin by arachidonic acid. Endocrinology 109:2016–2021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Handwerger S, Barry S, Markoff E, Barrett J, Conn, PM, 1983. Stimulation of the synthesis and release of decidual prolactin by a placental polypeptide. Endocrinology 112:1370–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Handwerger S, Crenshaw, Jr, C, Maurer WF, Barrett J, Hurley TW, Golander A, Fellows RE, 1977. Studies of ovine placental lactogen secretion by homologous radioimmunoassay. J Endocrinol 72:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Handwerger S, Fellows RE, Crenshaw MC, Hurley T, Barrett J, Maurer WF, 1976. Ovine placental lactogen: Acute effects on intermediary metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant sheep. J Endocrinol 69:133–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Handwerger S, Maurer W, Barrett J, Hurley T, Fellows RE, 1974. Evidence for homology between ovine and human placental lactogens. Endo Res Coram 1:403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatjis CG, Wu CH, Gabbe SG, 1981. Amniotic fluid prolactin levels and lecithin/spingomyelin ratios during the third trimester of human gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:435–440Google Scholar
  47. Hauth JC, Parker CR, MacDonald PC, Porter JC, Johnston JM, 1978. A role of fetal prolactin in lung maturation. Obstet Gynecol 51:81–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Herz Z, Khan I, Jayatilak PG, Gibori G, 1986. Evidence for the secretion of decidual luteotropin: A prolactin-like hormone produced by rat decidual cells. Endocrinology 118:2203–2209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hiestand PC, Mekler P, Nordmann R, Grieder A, Permmongkol C, 1986. Prolactin as a modulator of lymphocyte responsiveness provides a possible mechanism of action for cyclosporine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:2599–2603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hill DJ, Crace CJ, Milner RDG, 1985. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine by isolated fetal myoblasts and fibroblasts in response to human placental lactogen (hPL): Possible mediation of hPL action by release of immunoreactive SM-C. J Cell Physiol 125:337–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hill DJ, Crace CJ, Strain AJ, Milner RDG, 1986. Regulation of amino acid uptake and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in isolated human fetal fibroblasts and myoblasts: Effect of human placental lactogen, somatomedin-C, multiplication-stimulating activity, and insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 62:753–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hold WF, Perks AM, 1975. The effect of prolactin on water movement through the isolated amniotic membrane of the guinea pig. Gen Comp Endocrinol 26:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Horrobin DR, Lipton A, Muiruri KL, Manku MS, Bramley PS, Burstyn PG, 1973. An inhibitory effect of prolactin on the response of rat myometrium to oxytocin. Experientia 29:109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hurley TW, D’Ercole AJ, Handwerger S, Underwood LE, Fulanetto RW, Fellows RE, 1977. Ovine placental lactogen induces somatomedin: A possible role in fetal growth. Endocrinology 101:1635–1638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hurley TW, Handwerger S, Fellows RE, 1977. Isolation and structural characterization of ovine placental lactogen. Biochemistry 16: 5598–5604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hurley TW, Kuhn CM, Schanberg SM, Handwerger S, 1980. Differential effects of placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin on rat liver ornithine decarboxylase activity in the perinatal period. Life Sci 27:2269–2275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hwang P, Murray J, Jacobs J, Niall H, Friesen H, 1974. Human amniotic fluid prolactin, purification by affinity chromatography and amino-terminal sequence. Biochem 13:2354–2458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson JWC, Tyson JE, Mitzner W, Beck JC, Andressen B, London WT, Villar J, 1985. Amniotic fluid prolactin and fetal lung maturation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153:372–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Josimovich JB, Brande BL, 1964. Chemical properties in biological affects of human placental lactogen (HPL). Trans NY Acad Sci 27:161–166Google Scholar
  60. Josimovich JB, McLaren JA, 1962. Presence in the human placenta and term serum of a highly lactogenic substance immunologically related to pituitary growth hormone. Endocrinology 71:209–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Josimovich JB, Merisko K, Boccella L, 1977. Amniotic prolactin control over amniotic and fetal extracellular fluid water and electrolytes in the rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 100:564–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Josimovich JB, Weiss G, Hutchinson DL, 1974. Sources and disposition of pituitary prolactin in maternal circulation, amniotic fluid, fetus and placenta in the pregnant rhesus monkey. Endocrinology 94:1364–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, 1964. Studies of a human and simian placental hormone with growth hormone-like and prolactin-like activities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25:1370–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, 1965. Serum chorionic “growth hormone-prolactin” and serum pituitary growth hormone in mother and fetus at term. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25:1370–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM, Shepard TH, 1972. The ontogenesis of human fetal hormones. I. Growth hormone and insulin. J Clin Invest 51: 3080–3093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Karmali RA, Lauder I, Horrobin DF, 1974. Letter: Prolactin and the immune response. Lancet 2:106–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lehtovirta P, Ranta T, 1981. Effect of short-term bromocriptine treatment on amniotic fluid concentrations in the first half of pregnancy. Acta Endocrinol 97:559–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Leontic EA, Schruefer JJ, Andreassen B, Pinto H, Tyson JE, 1979. Further evidence for the role of prolactin on human feto-placental osmoregulation.. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133:435–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Leontic EA, Tyson JE, 1977. Possible osmoregulatory role for amniotic fluid prolactin. In: Crosignani PG, Robyn C, (eds.), Prolactin and Human Reproduction. London: Academic Press, pp.37–45Google Scholar
  70. Lesniak MA, Gorden P, Roth J, 1977. Reactivity of non-primate growth hormone and prolactin with growth hormone receptors on cultured human lymphocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:838–849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Manku MS, Mtabaji JP, Horrobin DF, 1975. Effect of Cortisol prolactin and ADH on the amniotic membrane. Nature 258:78–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marakawa S, Raben MS, 1968. Effect of growth hormone and placental lactogen on DNA synthesis in rat costal cartilage and adipose tissue. Endocrinology 83:645–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Markoff E, Howell S, Handwerger S, 1983. Inhibition of decidual prolactin by a decidual peptide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57:1282–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Martal J, Dijane J, 1977. Mammotrophic and growth promoting activities of a placental hormone in sheep. J Steroid Biochem 8:415–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Martal J, 1978. Placental growth hormone in sheep: Purification, properties and variations. Ann Biol An 18:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin JW, Friesen HG, 1969. Effect of human placental lactogen on the isolated islets of Langerhans in vitro. Endocrinology 84:619–621CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. McCoshen JA, Tagger OY, Wodzicki A, Tyson JE, 1982a. Choriodecidual adhesion promotes decidual prolactin transport by human fetal membranes. Am J Physiol 243:552–557Google Scholar
  78. McCoshen JA, Tomika K, Fernandy C, Tyson JE, 1982b. Specific cells of human amnion selectively localize prolactin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:166–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McGarry EE, Beck JC, 1972. Biological effects of non-primate prolactin and human placental lactogen. In: Wolstenholme GEW, Knight J, (eds.), Lactogenic Hormones. London: Churchill Livingston, pp. 361–389.Google Scholar
  80. McNeilly AS, Gilmore D, Jeffery D, Dobbie G, Chond T, 1977. The origin of prolactin in amniotic fluid: fetal or maternal? In: Croisignani PG, Robyn C, (eds.), Prolactin and Human Reproduction. London: Academic Press, pp. 21–26Google Scholar
  81. McWey LA, Singhas CA, Rogol AD, 1982. Prolactin binding sites on human chorion-decidua tissue. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mendelson CR, Johnston JM, MacDonald PC, Snyder JM, 1981. Multihormonal regulation of surfactant synthesis by human fetal lung in vitro: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 53:307–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Moodbidri SB, Sheth AR, Rao SS, 1973. Binding of radioiodinated human placental lactogen to buffalo corpus luteum in vitro. J Reprod Fert 35:453–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mugambi M, Mati JKG, Muriuki PG, Thairu K, 1974. An inhibitory action of prolactin on non-pregnancy human myometrium in vitro. E Afr Med J 51:392–396Google Scholar
  85. Page KR, Abramovich DR, Smith MR, 1974. Water transport across isolated term human amnion. J Mem Biol 18:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Raabe MA, McCoshen JA, 1986. Epithelial regulation of prolactin effect on amnionic permability. Am J Obstet Gynecol 154:130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Riddick D, Luciano A, Kusmik W, Maslar I, 1978. De novo synthesis of prolactin by human decidua. Life Sci 23:1913–1922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Riddick D, Luciano A, Kusmik W, Maslar I, 1979. Evidence for a non-pituitary source of amniotic fluid prolactin. Fert Steril 31:35–39Google Scholar
  89. Riddick DH, Maslar IA, 1981. The transport of prolactin by human fetal membranes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 52:220–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rosenberg SM, Maslar IA, Riddick DH, 1980. Decidual production of prolactin in late gestation: Further evidence for a decidual source of amniotic fluid prolactin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:681–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Samaan N, Yen S, Friesen HG, Pearson O, 1966. Serum placental lactogen levels during pregnancy and trophoblastic disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 26:1303–1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saxena B, Emerson K, Selenkow H, 1969. Serum placental lactogen levels as an index of placental function. New Eng J Med 281:225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saxena BN, 1971. Protein-polypeptide hormones of the human placenta. Vit Horm 29:95–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schenker JG, Ben-David M, Polishuk WZ, 1975. Prolactin in normal pregnancy. Relationship of maternal, fetal, and amniotic fluid levels. Am J Obstet Gynecol 123:834–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schober E, Simbruner G, Salzer H, Husslein P, Spona J, 1982. The relationship of prolactin in cord blood, gestational age and respiratory compliance after birth in newborn infants. J Perinat Med 10:23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sherwood LS, Handwerger S, McLaurin WE, Lanner M, 1971. Amino acid sequence of human placental lactogen. Nature New Biol 233:59–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Snyder JM, Longmuir KJ, Johnston JM, Mendelson CR, 1983. Hormonal regulation of the synthesis of lamellar body phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol in fetal lung tissue. Endocrinology 112:1012–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Spanos E, Colstan KW, Evans IMS, Golante LS, Macauley SJ, MacIntyre I, 1976. Effect of prolactin on vitamin D. metabolism. Mol Cell Endocrinol 5:163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Spellacy WN, Buhi WC, 1969. Pituitary growth hormone and placental lactogen levels measured in normal term and at early and late postpartum periods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 105:888–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stray-Pedersen S, 1982. The effect of prolactin on fetal membrane transport. J Perinatal Med 10:121–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Takahashi H, Nabeshima Y, Nabeshima Y-I, Ogata K, Takeuchi S, 1984. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of DNA complementary to human decidual prolactin mRNA. J Biochem 95:1491–1499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tyson JE, 1972. Human chorionic somatomammotropin. Obstet Gynecol Ann 1:421–452Google Scholar
  103. Tyson JE, Hwang P, Guyda H, Friesen HG, 1972. Studies of prolactin secretion in human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 113:14–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Tyson JE, Mowat GS, McCoshen JA, 1984. Simulation of a probable biologic action of decidual prolactin on fetal membranes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 148:296–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Walsh SW, Meyer RK, Wolf RC, Friesen HG, 1977. Corpus luteum and-fetoplacental functions in monkeys hypophysectomized during late pregnancy. Endocrinology 100:845–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Waters MJ, Oddy VH, McCloghry CE, Gluckman PD, Duplock R, Owens PC, Brinsmead MW, 1985. An examination of the proposed roles of placental lactogen in the ewe by means of antibody neutralization. J Endocrinol 106:377–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Winters AJ, Colston C, MacDonald PC, Porter JC, 1975. Fetal plasma prolactin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41:626–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wurzel JM, Parks JS, Herd JE, Nielsen PV, 1982. A gene deletion is responsible for absence of human chorionic somatomammotropin. DNA 1: 251–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ylikorkala O, Huhtaniemi I, Tuimala R, Seppala M, 1979. Subnormal post-conceptional levels of prolactin do not interfer with the early events of human pregnancy. Fert Steril 32:286–288Google Scholar
  110. Yuei BH, Phillips WDP, Cannon W, Sy L, Redford D, Burch P, 1982. Prolactin, estradiol, and thyroid hormones in umbilical cord blood of neonates with and without hyaline membrane disease: A study of 405 neonates from mid pregnancy to term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 142:698–703Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart Handwerger
    • 1
  • Michael Freemark
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Pediatrics and PhysiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations