Significance of Angiogenic and Growth Factors in Ovarian Follicular Development

  • Kenneth J. Ryan
  • Anastasia Makris
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 219)


There are many events taking place during follicular development which cannot be explained by the presently known hormones and their inter-relationships as now understood (di Zerga and Hodgen, 1981). With the two-cell model of ovarian steroid secretion, luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates androgen production by the theca and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces increased aromatase conversion of that androgen to estrogen by the granulosa cells. The FSH and estrogen locally induce LH receptors in the granulosa cell in anticipation of ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum (Hsueh et al., 1984). After much searching for the elusive follicular inhibin it has now been shown that FSH also stimulates granulosa production of inhibin (McLachlan et al., 1986) which along with estrogen provide the feedback from the follicle to the hypothalamic- pituitary unit (Tsonis and Sharpe, 1986). In spontaneous ovulators, estrogen feedback can trigger the LH surge which ultimately results in ovulation. The follicle destined to ovulate can be characterized by a microenvironent of characteristic follicular fluid steroid and gonadotropin concentrations and by an optimal granulosa cell number which distinguish the ripe follicles and their oocytes from those destined for atresia (McNatty et al., 1979).


Luteinizing Hormone Granulosa Cell Follicle Stimulate Hormone Corpus Luteum Follicular Fluid 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth J. Ryan
    • 1
  • Anastasia Makris
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Human Reproduction and Reproductive BiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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