Advertisement

Suspended Solids Transport within Regulated Rivers Experiencing Periodic Reservoir Releases

  • D. J. Gilvear

Abstract

Few studies have examined variations in turbidity and suspended solids within impounded rivers during reservoir releases (Beschta et al. 1981; Eustis & Hillen 1954). Reservoir releases have, however, been shown to increase invertebrate drift (Brooker & Hemsworth 1978), entrain substratum bacteria (McDonald et al. 1982) and flush particulate matter from in-channel storages (Matter et al. 1983). Excess fine sediments and organic matter within stream channels can adversely affect the quality of salmonid spawning gravels and the habitats of insects and benthic organisms (Hall & Lantz 1979; Bjornn et al 1977). Reservoir releases have been used to remove channel-bed accumulations (Antonio 1969). Nevertheless, Wesche and Rechard (1980) state: “there is also a need for quantitative information about flushing flows. With the present’ state of the art’ it is unknown if flushing flows are necessary to remove fines and maintain stream quality. If flushing flows are necessary to remove fines and maintain stream quality, methods for determining the proper, magnitude, time duration, as well as the time of the year, should become a valuable part of instream flow recommendations”. Milhous (1982) provided a conceptual model of the processes operating, but could not acquire information on the optimum frequency for releases. If the time is too long, not only will excess accumulation occur within the channel but subsequent removal may lead to unacceptable suspended solids concentrations and turbidity values. High levels may limit photosynthesis, reduce macro-invertebrates and restrict fish populations (Alabaster 1972).

Keywords

Suspended Solid Solid Concentration Suspended Solid Concentration Reservoir Release Peak Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alabaster, J. S. 1972. Suspended solids and fisheries. Proc. R. Soc. B.L., 180: 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonio, R. A. 1969. The Arkansas River Project civil engineering. American Society of Civil Engineering, 39: 44–49.Google Scholar
  3. Barton, B. A. 1977. The short-term effect of highway construction on the limnology of a small stream in Southern Ontario. Freshwat. Biol., 7: 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beschta, R. L. and Jackson, W. L. 1979. The intrusion of fine sediments into a stable gravel bed. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 36: 204–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beschta, R. L., Jackson, W. L. and Knoop, K. D. 1981. Sediment transport during a controlled reservoir release. Wat. Res. Bull., 17: 635–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjornn, T. C., Brusven, M. A., Molnau, M. P., Milligan, J. H., Klamt, R. A., Chaco, E. and Schaye, C. 1977. Transport of granitic sediments in streams and its effect on insects and fish. Bulletin No. 17, College of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences, 43 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Brennan, A., McLachland, A. J., and Wotton, R. S. 1978. Particulate material and midge larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) in an upland river. Hydrobiologia, 59: 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooker, M. P. and Hemsworth, R. J. 1978. The effect of the release of an artificial discharge of water on invertebrate drift in the R. Wye, Wales. Hydrobiologia, 59: 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carling, P. A. 1983. Particulate dynamics, dissolved and total load, in two small basins, northern Pennines, UK. Hydrol. S. J. 28; 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eaton, J. S., Likens, G. E. and Bormann, F. H. 1969. Use of membrane filters in gravimetric analysis of particulate matter in natural waters. Wat. Resources Res. 5: 1151–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eustis, A. B. and Hillen, R. H. 1954. Stream sediment removal by controlled reservoir releases. Prog.-Fish Cult. 16: 30–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Finlayson, B. L. 1975. Measurement of the organic content of suspended sediments at low concentrations. B.G.R.G. Tech. Bull., 17: 21–26.Google Scholar
  13. Fisher, S. G. and Lavoy, A. 1972. Differences in littoral fauna due to fluctuating levels below a hydro-electric dam. J. Fish. Res. Board Can., 29: 1472–1476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fisher, S. G. and Likens, G. E. 1973. Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: An integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism. Ecol. Monogr., 43: 421–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foulger, T. R. and Petts, G. E. 1984. Water quality implications of artificial flow fluctuations in regulated rivers. Science of the Total Environment, 37: 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gilvear, D. J. and Petts, G. E. 1985. Turbidity and suspended solids variations downstream of a regulating reservoir. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 10: 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hall, J. D. and Lantz, R. L. 1979. Effects of logging on the habitat of coho salmon and cutthroat trout in coastal streams. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Salmon and Trout in Streams. (Ed. by G. Northcote). pp. 355–375. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  18. Matter, J. W., Hudson, P. L. and Saul, G. E. 1983. Invertebrate drift and particulate organic matter transport below Lake Hartwell during a peak power generation cycle. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. (Ed. by T. D. Fontane and S. M. Bartwell), pp. 357–370. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  19. McDonald, A., Kay, D. and Jenkins, A. 1982. Generation of fecal and total coliform surges by stream flow manipulation in the absence of normal hydrometeorological stimuli. Appl. and Environ. Microbiol., 44: 292–300.Google Scholar
  20. Milhous, R. T. 1982. Effect of sediment transport and flow regulation on the ecology of gravel-bed rivers. In: Gravel Bed Rivers. (Ed. by R. D. Hey, J. C. Bathurst and C. R. Thome). John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, England.Google Scholar
  21. Petts, G. E., Foulger, T. R., Gilvear, D. J., Pratts, J. D. and Thorns, M. 1985. Wave movement and water quality variations during a controlled release from Kleider reservoir, North Tyne River, U.K. J. Hydrol. 80: 371–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Swanson, C. D. and Bachmann, R. W. 1976. A model of algal exports in some Iowa streams. Ecology, 57: 1076–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wesche, A. T. and Rechard, P. A. 1980. A Summary of Instream Flow Methods for Fisheries and Related Research Needs. Eisenhower Consortium for Western Environmental Forestry Research, University of Wyoming, Laramie. 122 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Gilvear
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of TechnologyLoughborough, LeicestershireUK

Personalised recommendations