Insulin Receptors in Brain Development
The presence of insulin in the nervous system has generated considerable interest since its discovery in insects less than a decade ago (for a review, see Hendricks et al., 1983). Since then, insulin or insulin-like material has been detected in numerous species, both vertebrate and invertebrate, as well as in bacteria and fungi (LeRoith et al., 1980; LeRoith et al., 1981). Accordingly, this has prompted the search in these tissues and cells for an insulin specific cellular target, namely the insulin receptor. Insulin receptors appear on nearly all vertebrate and many invertebrate cells, most of which have not previously been considered insulin-responsive. This has raised the possibility that insulin may elicit unique actions in these cells, distinct from its known effects on liver, muscle and fat. For example, insulin is essential for the in vitro growth and maintenance of all cell lines examined to date (Barnes and Sato, 1980). This may be particularly relevant when considering the role of insulin in the nervous system, since few of insulin’s classical effects have been demonstrated in this tissue. Current thinking has led to the suggestion that insulin may have neuromodulatory actions in the central nervous system (CNS) (Boyd et al., 1985). Alternatively, insulin might play two different but not mutually exclusive roles in the nervous system: 1.) neuromodulatory, and 2.) promotion of growth and differentiation in the embryo and newborn brain. Few studies have examined the ontogeny of insulin receptors in the embryonic brain and little is known concerning the importance of insulin in the central nervous system.
KeywordsSialic Acid Insulin Receptor Wheat Germ Agglutinin Insulin Binding Embryonic Brain
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Boyd, F.T. and Raizada, M.K., 1983, Am. J. Phvsiol., 245: C283–287.Google Scholar
- Brennan, W.A. Jr., 1987, J. Biol. Chem., (submitted).Google Scholar
- Carey, E.M., 1982, In: Biochemical Development of the Fetus and Neonate, C.T. Jones, ed., Elsevier, pp 297–298.Google Scholar
- Clarke, D.W., Boyd, F.T.,,Kappy, M.S., and Raizada, M.K., 1984, J. Biol. Chem., 259: 11672–11675.Google Scholar
- Dawson, G., 1978, In: Mammalian Glvcoproteins, Glvcolipids and Proteoglvcans, M.I. Horowitz and W. Pigonan, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp 285–325.Google Scholar
- Gombos, G., Ghandour, M.S., Vincendon, G., Reeber, A., and Zanetta, J.P., 1978, In: Maturation of Neurotransmission, A. Vernadakis, E. Giacobini, and G. Filogamo, eds., Krager, Basel, pp 10–22.Google Scholar
- Havrankova, J., Roth, J., and Brownstein, M., 1978, Nature (Lond.), 272:827–829.Google Scholar
- Hendricks, S.A., Roth, J., Rishi, S., and Becker, K.L., 1983, In: Brain Peptides, D.T. Krieger, M.J. Brownstein, and J.B. Martin, eds., John Wiley and Sons, pp 903–939.Google Scholar
- Lowe, W.L. and LeRoith, D., 1986, Biochem. Biophvs. Res. Comm., 134: 532–538.Google Scholar
- Pfenniger, L.H. and Rees, R.P., 1976, In: Neuronal Recognition, S.H. Barondes, ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp 131–173.Google Scholar