Psychophysiological Disorders of the Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Harry S. Shabsin
  • William E. Whitehead
Part of the The Plenum Series in Behavioral Psychophysiology book series (SSBP)


The gastrointestinal tract is composed of the anatomical structures involved in the transportation and digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients into the blood stream, and the removal of nonabsorbable products from the body (Hassett, 1978; Wolf & Welsh, 1972). Functionally, these structures can be divided into four main components: the esophagus, the stomach, and the small and large intestines. Additionally, the smooth muscle secretory glands composed of the liver, the pancreas, and the gallbladder aid in digestion by providing bile, cholesterol, and other enzymes that enhance the breakdown and absorption of nutrients.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lower Esophageal Sphincter Gastrointestinal Disorder Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient Colonic Motility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Almy, T. P. (1951). Experimental studies on the irritable colon. American Journal of Medicine,9, 60–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almy, T. P., & Tulin, M. (1947). Alterations in colonic function in man under stress: Experimental production of changes simulating the “irritable colon.” Gastroenterology,8, 616–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altaparmakov, I., & Wienbeck, M. (1984). Local inhibition of myoelectrical activity of human colon by loperamide. Digestive Diseases and Sciences,29, 232–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnard, C., & Illman, J. (Eds.) (1981). The body machine (pp. 124–127 ). New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  5. Beecher, H. K. (1965). Quantification of the subjective pain experience. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (Eds.), Psychopathology of perception. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  6. Beaumont, W. (1833). Experiments and observations on the gastric juice and the physiology of digestion. Plattsburgh, NY: F.P. Allen.Google Scholar
  7. Blumer, D. (1982). Chronic pain as a depressive disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases,170, 381–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Frexinos, J., & Ruckebush, Y. (1980). Colonic myoelectric activity in diarrhea and constipation. Hepato-Gastroenterology,27, 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bueno, L., Fioramonti, J., Ruckebusch, Y., Frexinos, J., & Coulom, P. (1980). Evaluation of colonic myoelectrical activity in health and functional disorders. Gut,21, 480–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bueno-Miranda, F., Cerulli, M., & Schuster, M. M. (1976). Operant conditioning of colonic motility in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Gastroenterology,70, 867.Google Scholar
  11. Burns, T. (1980). Colonic motility in the irritable bowel syndrome. Archives of Internal Medicine,40, 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caldarelli, D. D., Andrews, A. H., & Derbyshire, A. J. (1970). Esophageal motility studies in globus sensation. Annals of Otolaryngology, 1970, 79, 1098–100.Google Scholar
  13. Cannon, W. B. (1929). Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage ( 2nd ed. ). New York; Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  14. Cann, P. A., Read, N. W. & Holdsworth, C. D. (1983). Oral domperidone: Double blind comparison with placebo in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut,24, 135–140.Google Scholar
  15. Cann, P. A., Read, N. W., Holdsworth, C. D., & Barends, D. (1984). Role of loperamide and placebo in management of irritable bowel syndrome. Digestive Diseases and Sciences,29, 239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cann, P. A., Read, N. W., & Holdsworth, C. D. (1984). What is the benefit of coarse wheat bran in patients with irritable bowel syndrome? Gut,25, 168–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castell, D. O. (1982). Pathophysiology and spectrum of clinical syndromes of esophageal motility disorders. Journal of the Society of Gastrointestinal Assistants,4, 17–23Google Scholar
  18. Chaudhary, N. A., & Truelove, S. C. (1962). The irritable colon syndrome. Quarterly Journal of Medicine,31, 301–322.Google Scholar
  19. Christensen, J. (1975). Myoelectric control of the colon. Gastroenterology,70, 601–609.Google Scholar
  20. Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P. J. (1983). Psychiatric illness and contraction abnormalities of the esophagus. New England Journal of Medicine,42, 337–342.Google Scholar
  21. Code, C. F., & Schlegel J. F. (1968). Motor action of the esophagus and its sphincters. In C. F. Code (Ed.), Handbook of physiology. Section 6: Alimentary canal; Vol. 4: Motility. Washington, DC: American Physiology Society.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, S. I., & Reed, J. L. (1968). The treatment of “nervous diarrhoea” and other conditioned autonomic disorders by desensitization. British Journal of Psychiatry,114, 1275–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Connell, A. M. (1974). Clinical aspects of motility. Medical Clinics of North America,58, 1201–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dinoso, V., Goldstein, J., & Rosner, B. (1983). Basal motor activity of the distal colon: A reappraisal. Gastroenterology,85, 637–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dolezalova. V., Cerny, M., & Jirak, R. (1978). Relaxation and EMG activity in neurotics and patients with psychosomatic gastrointestinal disorders. Activa Nervosa,1 (Suppl.), 20, 35–36.Google Scholar
  26. Dotevall, G., Svedlund, J., & Sjodin, I. (1982). Symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology,79 (Suppl.), 16–19.Google Scholar
  27. Drossman, D. A. (1983). The physician and the patient: Review of the psychosocial gastrointestinal literature with an integrated approach to the patient. In M. H. Sleisenger & J. S. Fordtran (Eds.), Gastrointestinal disease: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management (Vol. 1, 3rd ed. ). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  28. Drossman, D. A. (1984). Diagnosis of the irritable bowel syndrome. A simple solution? Gastroenterology,87, 224–225.Google Scholar
  29. Drossman, D. A., Powell, D. W., & Sessions, J. T. (1977). The irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,73, 811–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Drossman, D. A., Sandler, R. S., McKee, D. C. & Lovitz, A. J. (1982). Bowel patterns among subjects not seeking health care. Gastroenterology,83, 529–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Durdle, N., Kingma, Y., Bowes, K., & Chambers, M. (1983). Origin of slow waves in the canine colon. Gastroenterology,84, 375–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in pswychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  33. Esler, M. D., & Goulston, K. J. (1973). Levels of anxiety in colonic disorders. New England Journal of Medicine,288, 16–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Faulkner, W. B. (1940). Severe esophageal spasm. Psychosomatic Medicine,2, 139–140.Google Scholar
  35. Feighner, J., Robins, E., Guze, S., Woodruff, R., Winokus, G. & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnos-tic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry,26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ford, M. J., Eastwood, J., & Eastwood, M. A. (1982). The irritable bowel syndrone: Soma or psyche? Psychological Medicine,12, 705–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fordyce, W. E. (1976). Behavioral concepts in chronic pain. In P. O. Davidson (Ed.), The behavioral management of anxiety, depression and pain. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  38. Frieri, G., Parisi, F., Corazziari, E., & Caprilli, R. (1983). Colonic electromyography in chronic constipation. Gastroenterology,84, 737–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Furman, S. (1973). Intestinal biofeedback in functional diarrhea: A preliminary report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 4, 317–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giles, S. L. (1978). Separate and combined effects of biofeedback training and brief individual psychotherapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Dissertation Abstracts International,Part B, 2495.Google Scholar
  41. Glaser, J. P., & Engel, G. L. (1977). Psychodynamics, pyschophysiology and gastrointestinal symptomatology. In T. P. Almy & J. F. Fielding (Eds.), Clinics in gastroenterology. London: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  42. Graham, J. R. (1977). The MMPI: A practical guide. New York: Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Greenbaum, D., Abitz, L., VanEgeren, L., Mayle, J., & Greenbaum, R. (1984). Irritable bowel symptom prevalence, rectosigmoid motility and psychometrics in symptomatic subjects not seeing physicians. Gastroenterology,84 (5, part 2), 1174.Google Scholar
  44. Hassett, J. (1978). A primer of psychophysiolgy. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  45. Harrell, T. H., & Beiman, I. (1978). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of the irritable colon syndrome. Cognitive Therapy and Research,2, 371–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harvey, R., & Read, A. (1973). Effects of cholecystokinin on colonic motility and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet,1, 1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harvey, R. F., Salih, S. Y., & Read, A. E. (1983). Organic and functional disorders in 2000 gastroenterology outpatients. Lancet,1, 632–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haynes, S. N. (1976). Electromyographic biofeedback treatment of a woman with chronic dysphagia. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation,1, 121–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hedberg, A. G. (1973). The treatment of chronic diarrhea by systematic desensitization: A case report. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,4, 67–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heefner, J. D., Wilder, R. M. & Wilson, L. D. (1978). Irritable colon and depression. Psycho-somatics,19, 540–547.Google Scholar
  51. Hislop, I. G. (1971). Psychological significance of the irritable colon syndrome. Gut,12, 452–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hislop, I. G. (1980). Effect of very brief psychotherapy on the irritable bowel syndrome. Medical Journal of Australia,2, 620–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hyland, J., Darby, C., Hammond, R., & Taylor, I. (1980). Myoelectrical activity of the sigmoid colon in patients with diverticular disease and the irritable colon syndrome suffering from diarrhoea. Digestion,20, 293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jacobson, E. (1927). Spastic esophagus and mucous colitis. Archives of Internal Medicine,39, 433–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Khatami, M., & Rush, J. (1978). A pilot study of the treatment of outpatients with chronic pain: Symptom control, stimulus control, and social system intervention. Pain,5, 163–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirsner, J. B. & Palmer, W. L. (1958). The irritable colon. Gastroenterology,34, 490–493.Google Scholar
  57. Kruis, W., Thieme, C., Weinzierl, M., Schussler, P., Holl, J., & Paulus, W. (1984). A diagnostic score for the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,87, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lancaster-Smith, M. J., Prout, B. J., Pinto, T., Anderson, J., & Schiff, A. A. (1982). Influence of drug treatment on the irritable bowel syndrome and its interaction with psycho-neurotic morbidity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,66, 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Latimer, P. (1981). Biofeedback and self-regulation in the treatment of diffuse esophageal spasm: A single-case study. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation,6, 181–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Latimer, P., Campbell, D., Latimer, M., Sarna, S. Daniel, E., & Waterfall, W. (1979). Irritable bowel syndrome: A test of the colonic hyperalgesia hypothesis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine,2, 285–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Latimer. P., Sarna, S., Campbell, D., Latimer, M., Waterfall, W., & Daniel, E. (1981). Colonic motor and myoelectric activity: A comparative study of normal subjects, psychoneurotic patients, and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,80, 893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lechin, R., Van der Dijs, B., Gomez, R., Lechin, E., & Arocha, L. (1983). Distal colonic motility and clinical parameters in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders,5, 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Legalos, C. N. (1977). Aversive behavior therapy for chronic stomach pain: A case study. Pain,4, 67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lehtinen, V., & Puhakka, H. (1976). A psychosomatic approach to the globus hystericus syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica,53, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Levitt, R. A. (1975). Psychopharmacology: A biological aproach (pp. 193–194 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Liss, J. L., Alpers, D., & Woodruff, R. A. (1973). The irritable colon syndrome and psychiatric illness. Diseases of the Nervous System,34, 151–157.Google Scholar
  67. Mair, W. S., Schroder, K. E., Modalsli, B., & Maurer, H. J. (1974). Aetiological aspects of the globus symptom. Journal of Laryngology,88, 1033–1040.Google Scholar
  68. Malcomson, K. G. (1966). Radiological findings in globus hystericus. British Journal of Radiology,39, 583–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manning. A. P., Thompson, W. G., Heaton, K. W. & Morris, A. F. (1978). Towards positive diagnosis of the irritable bowel. British Medical Journal,2, 653–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McHardy, G., Browne, D. C., McHardy, R. J., Welch, G. E., & Ward, S. S. (1962). Psycho-physiologic gastrointestinal reactions: Therapeutic observations. Postgraduate Medicine,31, 346–357.Google Scholar
  71. McKegney, P. F. (1977). Psychiatric syndromes associated with gastrointestinal symptoms Clinics in Gastroenterology,6, 675–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mechanic, D. (1983). The experience and expression of distress: The study of illness behavior and medical utilization. In D. Mechanic (Ed.), Handbook of health,health care,and the health professional. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  73. Mendeloff, A. I., Monk, M., Siegel, C. I., & Lilienfeld, A. (1970). Illness experience and life stresses in patients with irritable colon syndrome and with ulcerative colitis. New England Journal of Medicine,282, 14–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meshkinpour, H., Hoehler, F., Bernick, D., & Buerger, A. (1981). Electrical control activity in the sigmoid colon: Effect of metoclopramide. American Journal of Proctology, Gastroenterology, and Colon and Rectal Surgery,32, 12–13, 27–28.Google Scholar
  75. Michell, K. (1978). Self-management of spastic colitis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experi-mental Psychiatry,9, 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Myren, J., Groth, H., Larssen, S. E., & Larsen, S. (1982). The effect of trimipramine in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology,17, 871–875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neff, D. F., Blanchard, E. B., & Andrasik, F. (November, 1983 ). Behavioral treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Paper presented annual meeting of the Association to Advance Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  78. O’Connell, M. F., & Russ, K. L. (February, 1979 ). A case report comparing two types of biofeedback in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  79. Ouyang, A., Reynolds, J. C., & Cohen, S. (1983). Spike-associated and spike independent esophageal contractions in patients with symptomatic diffuse esophageal spasm. Gastroenterology,84, 907–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Palmer, R. L., Crisp, A. H., Stonehill, E., & Waller, S. L. (1974). Psychological characteristics of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Postgraduate Medical Journal,50, 416–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pavlov, I. (1910). The work of the digestive glands. Translated by W. H. Thompson. London: Griffin.Google Scholar
  82. Phillips, R. H. (November, 1983 ). The efficacy of relaxation and imagery procedures in alleviating gastrointestinal discomfort. Preliminary results. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association to Advance Behavior Therapy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  83. Ritchie, J. (1973). Pain from distension of the pelvic colon by inflating a balloon in the irritable colon syndrome. Gut,14, 125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ritchie, J. A., & Truelove, S. C. (1980). Comparison of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome. British Medical Journal,281, 1317–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ryan, W. A., Kelly, M. G., & Fielding, J. F. (1983). Personality and the irritable bowel syndrome. Irish Medical Journal,76, 140–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rubin, J., Nagler, R., Spiro, H., & Pilot, M. (1962). Measuring the effect of emotions on esophageal motility. Psychosomatic Medicine,24, 170–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Sandler, R. S., Drossman, D. A., Nathan, H. P. & McKee, D. C. (1984). Symptom complaints and health care seeking behavior in subjects with bowel dysfunction. Gastroenterology,87, 314–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sarna, S., Latimer, P., Campbell, D., & Waterfall, W. (1982). Electrical and contractile activities of the human rectosigmoid. Gut,23, 698–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schatzki, R. S. (1964). Globus hystericus (globus sensation). New England Journal of Medicine,270, 676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schang, J., & Devroede, G. (1983). Fasting and postprandial myoelectrical spiking activity in the human sigmoid colon. Gastroenterology,85, 1048–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Schuster, M. M. (1984). Irritable bowel syndrome: Applications of psychophsiological methods of treatment. In R. Hoelzl & W. E. Whitehead (Eds.), Psychophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract: Experimental and clinical applications. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  92. Schuster, M. M. (1979). Disorders of motility. In P. B. Beeson, W. McDermott, & J. B. Wyngaarden (Eds.), Cecil Textbook of Medicine ( 15th edition ). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  93. Schuster, M. M., Nikoomanesh, P., & Wells, D. (1973). Biofeedback control of lower esophageal sphincter contraction. Rendiconti di Gastrointerologia,5, 14–18.Google Scholar
  94. Smits, B. J. (1974). The irritable bowel syndrome. Practitioner,213, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Snape, W., Carlson, G., & Cohen, S. (1976). Colonic myoelectric activity in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,70, 326–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Snape, W. Carlson, G., & Cohen, S. (1977). Human colonic myoelectric activity in response to prostigmin and the gastrointestinal hormones. Digestive Diseases,22. 881–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Snape, W., Carlson G., Matarazzo, S., & Cohen, S. (1977). Evidence that abnormal myoelectrical activity produces colonic motor dysfunction in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology,72, 383–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stacher, G., Steinringer, H., Blau, A., & Landgraf, M. (1979). Acoustically evoked esophageal contraction and defense reaction. Psychophsiology,16, 234–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stroebel, C. F. (1972). Psychophysiological pharmacology. In N. S. Greenfield & R. S. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychopysiology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  100. Sullivan, M., Cohen, S., & Snape, W. (1978). Colonic myoelectrical activity in irritable-bowel syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine,298, 878–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Svedlund, J., Sjodin, I., Ottosoon, J., Sr Dotevall, G. (1983). Controlled study of psychotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet,2. 589–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taylor, I., Duthie, H., Smallwood, R., Brown, B., & Linkens, D. (1974). The effect of stimulation on the myoelectrical activity of the rectosigmoid in man. Gut,15, 599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Taylor, I., Darby, C., & Hammond, P. (1978). Comparison of rectosigmoid myoelectrical activity in the irritable colon syndrome during relapse and remissions. Gut,19, 923–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taylor. I., Darby, C., Hammond, P., & Basu, P. (1978). Is there a myoelectrical abnormality in the irritable colon syndrome? Gut,19, 391–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Texter, E. C., & Butler R. C. (1975). The irritable bowel syndrome. Practical Therapeutics,11, 168–170.Google Scholar
  106. Thompson, W. G. (1979). The irritable gut. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  107. Thompson, W. G., & Heaton, K. W. (1980). Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. Gastroenterology,79, 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Thompson, W. G., & Heaton, K. W. (1982). Heartburn and globus in apparently healthy people. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association,126, 46–48.Google Scholar
  109. Vander, A. J., Sherman, J. H., & Luciano, D. S. (1975). Human physiology: The mechanisms of body function. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  110. Waller, S. L. (1971). The irritable bowel syndrome: Clinical and pathophysiological features. Rendiconti di Gastroenterologia,3, 80–87.Google Scholar
  111. Waller, S. L., & Misiewicz, J. J. (1969). Prognosis in the irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet, 1969, 2, 753–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wangel, A., & Deller, D. (1965). Intestinal motility in man. Gastroenterolgoy,48, 69–84.Google Scholar
  113. Watson, W. C., & Sullivan, S. N. (1974). Hypertonicity of the cricopharyngeal sphincter: A cause of globus sensation. Lancet,2, 676.Google Scholar
  114. Watson, W. C., Sullivan, S. N., Corke, M., & Rush, D. (1978). Globus and headache: Common symptoms of the irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of the Canadian Medical Association,118, 387–388.Google Scholar
  115. Weiner, H. (1977). Psychobiology and human disease. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  116. West, K. L. (1970). MMPI correlates of ulcerative colitis. Journal of Clinical Psychology,26, 214–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Whitehead, W. E., & Bosmajian, L. (1982). Behavioral medicine approaches to gastrointestinal disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,50, 972–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Whitehead, W. E., & Schuster, M. M. (1985). Common gastrointestinal disorders: Physiological and behavioral basis for treatment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  119. Whitehead, W. E., Fedoravicius, A. S., Blackwell, B., & Wooley, S. (1979). Psychosomatic symptoms as learned responses. In J. R. McNamara (Ed.), Behavioral approaches in medicine: Application and analysis. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  120. Whitehead, W. E., Engle, B., & Schuster, M. M. (1980). Irritable bowel syndrome: Physiological and psychological differences between diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant patients. Digestive Diseases and Sciences,25, 404–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Whitehead, W. E., Winget, C., Fedoravicius, S. S., Wooley, S., & Blackewell, B. (1982). Learned illness behavior in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer. Digestive Diseases and Sciences,27, 202–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wolf, S., & Almy, A. P. (1949). Experimental observations of cardiospasm in man. Gastroenterology,13, 401–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wolf, S., & Welsh, J. D. (1972). The gastrointestinal tract as a responsive system. In N.S. Greenfield & R. A. Sternback (Eds.), Handbook of psychophsiology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  124. Wolf, S., & Wolff, H. G. (1947). Human gastric function. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Youell, K. J., & McCullough, J. P. (1975). Behavioral treatment of mucus colitis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,43, 740–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Young, S. J., Alpers, D. H., Norland, C. C. & Woodruff, R. A. (1976). Psychiatric illness and the irritable bowel syndrome: Practical implications for the primary physician. Gastroenterology,70, 162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry S. Shabsin
    • 1
  • William E. Whitehead
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Digestive Diseases, Francis Scott Key Medical CenterJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations