Psychohistorical Reflections on Changing Body Images for Women

  • Alice Eichholz


Bodies haven’t changed much in our evolutionary development, but body image probably has not been quite as stable. Certainly one might observe this to be the case in the last 200 years in the United States, as a representative of Western culture. Pictures of women today portray very different messages from those drawn or photographed in the past. In trying to understand the effects of psychophysical passages on women, it is appropriate to try to draw some observations about changes in body image.


Body Image Vaginal Discharge Child Rear Birth Experience Gentian Violet 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cox, V. C., & Quitt, M. (1980). Loving, parenting and dying. New York: Psychohistory Press.Google Scholar
  2. Davis, G. (1976). Childhood and history in America. New York: Psychohistory Press.Google Scholar
  3. deMause, L. (1982). Foundations of psychohistory. New York: Creative Roots. [deMause, L. (1975), “Evolution of Childhood,” can also be found in deMause, L. (Ed.) (1975). The history of childhood. New York: Psychohistory Press.]Google Scholar
  4. Donnison, J. (1977). Midwives and medical men: A history of inter-professional rivalries and women’s rights. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  5. Fisher, S. (1970). Body experience in fantasy and behavior. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.Google Scholar
  6. Fisher, S. (1973). Body consciousness: You are what you feel. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Fisher, S. (1986). Development and structure of the body image, (Vols. 1 and 2 ). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Press.Google Scholar
  8. LeBoyer, F. (1975). Birth without violence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  9. Macfarland, A. (1977). Psychology of childbirth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Odent, M. (1984). Birth reborn. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  11. Pomeroy, Sarah B. (1975). Goddesses, whores, wives, and slaves: Women in classical antiquity. New York: Schocken Books.Google Scholar
  12. Russell, D. (1986). The secret trauma. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Sanford, L.T., & Donovan, M. E. (1984). Women and self esteem: Understanding and improving the way we think and feel about ourselves. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  14. Shorter, E. (1975). Making of the modern family. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  15. Shorter, E. (1982). The history of women’s bodies. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Stone, L. (1977). The family, sex and marriage in England, 1500–1800. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice Eichholz
    • 1
  1. 1.Vermont College of Norwich UniversityMontpelierUSA

Personalised recommendations