Advertisement

Antimicrobial Prophylaxis

  • Gordon M. Dickinson

Abstract

The proverb “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is particularly appropriate to infections. Infections account for a majority of illnesses that cause patients to seek medical care.1 Although many of these infections are self-limited upper-respiratory-tract infections, serious infections with much greater morbidity and economic impact are also common. A study of community-acquired infections in hospitalized patients conducted over a 3 1/2-year period in the early 1970s, led the authors to estimate that there were more than three million infections per year in hospitalized patients in the United States.2 A contemporary study of nosocomial infections estimated that more than two million hospital-acquired infections occurred yearly.2 It is clear that infections will continue to account for a large proportion of illnesses that require medical care.

Keywords

Infective Endocarditis Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Mitral Valve Prolapse Neisseria Meningitidis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Moffett, H. L.: Common infections in ambulatory patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 89(Part 2): 743–745, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dixon, R. E.: Effect of infections on hospital care. Ann. Intern. Med. 89(Part 2): 749–753, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kass, E.: Antimicrobial drug usage in general hospitals in Pennsylvania. Ann. Intern. Med. 19(Part 2): 800–801, 1978.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shapiro, M., Townsend, T. R., Rosner, B., and Kass, E. H.: Use of antimicrobial drugs in general hospitals: Patterns of prophylaxis. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 351–355, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson, B. M.: Mortality in meningococcal infections. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 10: 271–282, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control: Annual summary 1979: Reported morbidity and mortality in the United States. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 28: 14–7,53, 1980.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuhns, D. M., Nelson, T., Feldman, H. A., and Kuhn, L. R.: The prophylactic value of sulfadiazine in the control of meningococcic meningitis. JAMA 123: 335–339, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guttler, R. B., Counts, G. W., Avent, C. K., and Beaty, H. N.: Effect of rifampin and minocycline onmeningogoccal carrier rates. J. Infect. Dis. 124: 199–205, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Devine, L. F., Johnson, D. R., Rhode, S. L., et al.: Rifampin: Effect of two-day treatment on the meningococcal carrier state and the relationship to the levels of drug in sera and saliva. Am. J. Med. Sci. 2661: 79–83, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Apicella, M. A.: Neisseria meningitidis, in Mandell, G. L., Douglas, R. G., Jr., and Bennett, J. E. (eds.): Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, 1985, pp. 1186–1195.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weidmen, C. E., Dunkel, T. B., Pettyjohn, F. S., et al.: Effectiveness of rifampin in eradicating the meningococcal carrier state in a relatively closed population: Emergency of resistant strains. J. Infect. Dis. 124: 171–178, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoperich, P. D.: Prediction of antimeningococci chemoprophylactic efficacy. J. Infect. Dis. 123: 125, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thelm, I., Wnnstrom, A. M, and Mardh, P. A.: Contact tracing in patients with genital chlamydial infections. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 56: 259, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Centers for Disease Control: 1985 STD treatment guidelines. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 34(suppl 4): 75s–108s, 1985.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ward, J. I., Fraser, D. W., Baraff, L. J., and Plikaytis, B. D.: Haemophilus influenzae meningitis: A national study of secondary spread in household contacts. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 122, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Granoff, D. M., and Daum, R. S.: Spread of Haemophilus influenzae type B: Recent epidemiologic and therapeutic considerations. J. Pediatr. 97: 854, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Centers for Disease Control: Prevention of secondary cases o. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 31: 672–680, 1982.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Granoff, D. M., and Ward, J. I.: Current status of prophylaxis for Haemophilus influenzae infections, in Remington, J. S., and Swartz, M. N. (eds.): Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Des Prez, R. M., and Goodwin, R. A., Jr.: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in Mandell, G. L., Douglas, R. G., Jr., and Bennett, J. E. (eds.): Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, 1985, pp. 1383–1406.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kopanoff, D. E., Snider, D. E., Jr., and Caras, G. J.: Isoniazid-related hepatitis. A U.S. Public Health Service cooperative surveillance study. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 117: 991, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bailey, W. C., Byrd, R. B., Glassroth, J. L., et al.: Preventive treatment of tuberculosis. Chest 87(suppl): 128–132, 1985.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Centers for Disease Control: Adverse reactions to Fansidar and updated recommendations for its use in the prevention of malaria. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33: 713–714, 1986.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wyler, D. J.: Malaria—Resurgence, resistance and research. N. Engl. J. Med. 308: 875–878, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Centers for Disease Control: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP): Prevention and control of influenza. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 35: 317–325, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monto, A. S., Gunn, R. A., Bandyk, M. G., and King, C. L.: Prevention of Russian influenzae by amantadme. JAMA 241: 1003–1007, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dolin, R., Reichman, R. C., Madore, H. P., et al.: A controlled trial of amantadme and rimantadine in the prophylaxis of influenza A infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 580–584, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hook, E. W., and Kaye, D.: Prophylaxis of bacterial endocarditis. J. Chronic Dis. 15: 635–646, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Durach, D. T.: Prophylaxis of infective endocarditis, in Mandell, G. L., Douglas, R. G., Jr., and Bennett, J. E. (eds.): Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, 1985, pp. 539–544.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kaye, D.: Prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis: A dilemma, in Kaplan, E. L., and Taranta, A. V. (eds.): Infective Endocarditis. AHA Monograph No. 52. American Heart Association, Dallas, 1977, pp. 67–69.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Durock, D. T., Petersdorf, R. G.: Chemotherapy of experimental streptococcal endocarditis: Comparison of commonly recommended prophylactic regimens. J. Clin. Invest. 52: 592–599, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shulman, S. T., Amren, D. P., Bisno, A. L., et al.: Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: A statement for health professionals by the Committee on Rheumatic Fever and Infective Endocarditis of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Circulation 70: 1123A–1127A, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Durack, D. T., Bisno, A. L., and Kaplan, E. L.: Apparent failures of endocarditis: Analysis of 52 cases submitted to a national registry. JAMA 250: 2318–2322, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brooks, S. L.: Survey of compliance with American Heart Association guidelines for prevention of bacterial endocarditis. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 101: 41–43, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harding, G. K. M., and Ronald, A. R.: A controlled study of antimicrobial prophylaxis of recurrent urinary infection in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 597–601, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stamey, T. A., Condy, M., and Minara, G.: Prophylactic efficacy of nitrofurantoin macrocrystals and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in urinary infections: Biological effects on the vaginal and rectal flora. N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 780–783, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stamm, W. E., Counts, G. W., Wagner, K. F., et al.: Antimicrobial prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 92: 770–775, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Green, J. W., and Wenzel, R. P.: Postoperative wound infection: A controlled study of the increased duration of hospital stay and direct cost of hospitalization. Ann. Surg. 185: 264–268, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Post-operative wound infections: The influence of ultraviolet irradiation of the operating room and of various other factors, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Division of Medical Sciences, Ad Hoc Committee of the Committee on Trauma. Ann. Surg. 160(suppl. 2): 1–192, 1964.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crossley, K., and Gardner, L. C.: Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical patients. JAMA 245: 722–726, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cruse, P. J. E., and Ford, R.: A five-year prospective study of 23,649 surgical wounds. Arch. Surg. 107: 206–209, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cruse, P. J. E., and Ford, R.: The epidemiology of wound infection—A ten year prospective study of 62,939 wounds. Surg. Clin. North Am. 80: 27–40, 1979.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shapiro, M., Munoz, A. Tager, J. B., et al.: Risk factors for infection at the operative site after abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. N. Engl. J. Med. 307: 1661–1666, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nichols, R. L., Condon, R. E., Gorback, S. L., and Nylus, L. M.: Efficacy of preoperative antimicrobial preparation of the bowel. Ann. Surg. 176: 227–323, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sanford, J. P.: Prophylactic use of antibiotics: Basic considerations. South. Med. J. 70(suppl. 2): 2–3, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stone, H. H., Haney, B. B., Kob, L. D., et al.: Prophylactic and preventive antibiotic therapy-timing, duration and economics. Ann. Surg. 189: 691–699, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D’Angelo, L. J., and Sokol, R. J.: Short-versus long-course prophylactic antibiotic treatment in cesarean section patients. Obstet. Gynecol. 55: 583–586, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Conti, J. E., Jr., Cohen, S. N., Roe, B. B., et al.: Antibiotic prophylaxis and cardiac surgery. A prospective double-blind comparison of single-dose versus multiple-dose regimens. Ann. Intern. Med. 76: 943–949, 1972.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Higgins, A. F., Lewis, A., Noone, P., et al.: Single and multiple dose cotrimoxazole and metronidazole in colorectal surgery. Br. J. Surg. 67: 90–92, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hemsell, D. L., Reisch, J., Nobles, B., et al.: Prevention of major infection following elective abdominal hysterectomy: Individual determination required. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147: 520–528, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burke, J. F.: The effective period of preventive antibiotic action in experimental incisions and dermal lesions. Surgery 50: 161–168, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon M. Dickinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Miami School of Medicine, Veterans Administration Medical CenterMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations