• Eugene C. CorbettJr.
  • Daniel M. Becker


The nutritional aspects of health and disease, although increasingly studied and publicized, remain incompletely understood. Nutritional science developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as dietary deficiency states were associated with specific diseases and biochemical findings. Vitamins were identified and the clinical consequences of caloric and protein deprivation were described. Following the recognition of essential nutrients, recommendations for daily allowances of these nutrients have been developed (Table I). Many complicated nutritional questions remain.


Serum Cholesterol Dietary Fiber Diverticular Disease Sodium Intake Salt Intake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McNutt, K.: Dietary advice to the public: 1957 to 1980. Nutr. Rev. 38: 353–360, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swan, P. B.: Food consumption by individuals in the United States: Two major surveys. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 3: 413–432, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simopoulos, A. P.: Overview of nutritional status in the United States. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 67: 237–247, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Graham, G. G.: Poverty, hunger, malnutrition, prematurity, and infant mortality in the United States. Pediatrics 75: 117–125, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bistrian, B. R., Blackburn, G. L., Vitale, J., et al.: Prevalence of malnutrition in general medical patients. JAMA 235: 1567–1570, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Albion, N., Asplund, K., and Bjermer, L.: Nutritional status of medical patients on emergency admission to hospital. Acta Med. Scand. 212: 151–156, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Exton-Smith, A. N.: Malnutrition in the elderly. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 70: 615–619, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jukes, T. H.: Organic food. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 9: 395–418, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appledorf, H.: Nutritional analysis of foods from fast food chains. Food Technol. 28: 50–55, 1974.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jukes, T. H.: How safe is our food supply. Arch. Intern. Med. 138: 772–774, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jukes, T. H.: Current concepts in nutrition: Food additives. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 427–430, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mathews, K. P.: Urticaria and angioedema. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 72: 1–14, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wender, E. H.: Diet and hyperkinesis, in Ellenbogen, L. (ed.): Controversies in Nutrition. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1981, pp. 125–138.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jukes, T. H.: Organic foods and food additives, in Ellenbogen, L. (ed.): Controversies in Nutrition. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1981, pp. 139–158.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toxic reactions to plant products sold in health food stores. Med. Lett. 21: 29–30, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carmel, R.: Nutritional vitamin B-12 deficiency: Possible contributory role of subtle vitamin B-12 malabsorption. Ann. Intern. Med. 88: 647–649, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Higginbottom, M. C., Sweetman, L., and Nyhan, W. L.: A syndrome of methylmalonic aciduria, homocystinuria, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic abnormalities in a vitamin B12-deficient breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian. N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 317–320, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dwyer, J. T., Dietz, W. M., Huss, G., et al.: Risk of nutritional rickets among vegetarian children. Am. J. Dis. Child. 133: 134–140, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harland, B. T., and Peterson, M.: Nutritional Status of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 72: 259–265, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shaywitz, B. A., Siegel, N. J., and Pearson, M. A.: Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction: A potentially dangerous therapy. JAMA 238: 1749–1750, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lippe, B., Hensen, L., Mendoza, G., et al.: Chronic vitamin A intoxication. Am. J. Dis. Child. 135: 634–636, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schaimburg, H., Kaplan, J., Windebank, A., et al.: Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 445–448, 1983.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sugar, A. A., and Clark, C. G.: Jaundice following the administration of niacin. JAMA 228: 202–203, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Patterson, D. J., Dew, E. W., Gyorkey, F., et al.: Niacin hepatitis. South. Med. J. 76: 239–240, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Toxic effects of vitamin overdosage. Med. Lett. 26: 73–74, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    VanItallie, T. B.: Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 103(6 pt 2): 983–988, 1985.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garrison, R. J., and Castelli, W. P.: Weight and thirty year mortality in the Framingham study. Ann. Intern. Med. 103(6 pt 2): 1006–1009, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Barrett-Connor, E. L.: Obesity, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 103(6 pt 2): 1010–1019, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dusten, H. P.: Obesity and hypertension. Ann. Intern. Med. 103(6 pt 2): 1047–1049, 1985.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cooppan, R., and Flood, T. M.: Obesity and diabetes, in Marble, A., Kroll, L. P., Bradley, R. F., et al. (eds.): Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1985, p. 373.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bonham, G. S., and Brock, D. B.: The relationship of diabetes with race, sex, and obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41: 776–783, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kannel, W. B., Castelli, W. P., Gordon, T., et al.: Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Ann. Intern. Med. 74: 1–12, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    The diet and all-causes death rate in the seven countries study. Lancet 1: 58–61, 1981.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bronte-Stewart, A., Keys, A., Brock, J. P., et al.: Serum cholesterol, diet, and coronary heart disease: An inter-racial survey in the cape peninsula. Lancet 2: 1103–1107, 1955.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phillips, R. L., Lemon, F. R., Beeson, V. L., et al.: Coronary heart disease mortality among Seventh Day Adventists with differing dietary habits. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 5191–5198, 1978.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shekelle, R. B., Shryock, A. M., Paul, O., et al.: Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease: The Western Electric study. N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 65–70, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gofman, J. W., Young, W., and Tandy, R. L.: Ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and longevity. Circulation 34: 679–696, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gordon, T., Castellki, W., and Hjortland, M. C.: High density lipoprotein as a protective factor against coronary heart disease: The Framingham study. Am. J. Med. 62: 707–714, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brown, M.S., and Goldstein, J. L.: The hyperlipoproteinemias and other disorders of lipid metabolism, in Peterdorf, R. G., Adams, R. D., Braunwald, E., et al. (eds.): Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983, pp. 547–558.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    The lipid research clinics coronary prevention trial results: Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 251: 351–361, 1984.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Avugaro, P., Cazzolato, G., Bittolo Bon, G., et al.: Are apolipoproteins better discriminators than lipids for atherosclerosis. Lancet 1: 901–903, 1979.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Norum, R. A., Lakier, J. B., Goldstein, S., et al.: Familial deficiency of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III and precocious coronary artery disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 306: 1513–1519, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Armstrong, M. L., Warner, E. D., and Conner, W. S.: Regression of coronary atheromatosis in rhesus monkeys. Circ. Res. 27: 59–67, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liebman, M., and Bazarre, T. L.: Plasma lipids of vegetarian and nonvegetarian males: Effects of egg consumption. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 38: 612–619, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kato, H., Tillotson, J., Nichaman, M. Z., et al.: Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: Serum lipid and diet. Am. J. Epidemiol. 97: 372–384, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levy, R. I., and Feinleib, M.: Risk factors for coronary artery disease and their management, in Braunwald, E. (ed.): Heart Disease. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1984, pp. 1205–1234.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kuller, L. H.: Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases: Current perspectives. Am. J. Epidemiol. 104: 425–456, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hartug, G. M., Foreyt, J. P., Mitchell, R. S., et al.: Relation of diet to high density lipoprotein cholesterol in middle aged marathon runners, joggers, and inactive men. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 357–361, 1980.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Herold, P. M., and Kinsella, J. E.: Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: A comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 566–598, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kromhout, D., Bosschieter, E. B., and Coulander, C. L.: The inverse relation between fish consumption and 20 year mortality from coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1205–1209, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Phillipson, B. E., Rothrock, D. W., Connor, W. E., et al.: Reduction of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins by dietary fish oils in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1210–1216, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee, T. H., Hoover, R. L., Williams, J. D., et al.: Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 1217–1219, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sipple, H. L., and McNutt, K. W.: Sugars in Nutrition. Academic Press, New York, 1974, pp. 3–9, 93-107.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Garrison, R. H., and Somer, E.: Nutrition Desk Reference. Keats, New Caanan, CT, 1985, p. 5.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dietary Goals for the United States, 2nd ed. Select Commission on Nutrition and Human Needs, US Senate. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977, p. 5.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rubenstein, A. H., Seftel, H. C., Miller, K., et al.: Metabolic response to oral glucose in healthy South African White, Indian and African subjects. Br. Med. J. 1: 748–751, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    National Center for Health Statistics: Diabetes in America. PHS, NIH Pub. No. 85-1468. USDHHS, Washington, DC, August 1985.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jenkins, D. J. A., Wolever, T. M. S., Jenkins, A. L., et al.: Low glycemic response to traditionally processed wheat and rye products. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43: 516–520, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Haber, G. B., Heaton, K. W., and Murphy, D.: Depletion and disruption of dietary fiber; effects on satiety, plasma glucose and serum insulin. Lancet 2: 679–682, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Anderson, J. W., Midgley, W. R., and Wedman, B. W.: Fiber and diabetes. Diabetes Care 2: 369–379, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leske, G. S., Ripa, L. W., Leske, M. C., et al.: Dental public health, in Last, J. M. (ed.); Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Appleton, Century Crofts, Norwalk, CT, 1986, pp. 1473–1513.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Williams, S. R.: Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Mosby, St. Louis, 1985.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reiser, S., Hallfrisch, J., Michaelis, D. E., et al.: Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans; effects on levels of fasting blood lipids. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1659–1669, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Eastwood, M. A., Brydon, W. G., and Tadesse, K.: Effects of fiber on colon function, in Spiller, G. A., and Kay, R. M. (eds.): Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber. Plenum Press, New York, 1980, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Burkitt, D. P., Walker, A. R. P., and Printer, N. S.: Effect of dietary fiber on stools and transit times, and its role in the causation of disease. Lancet 2: 1408–1411, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holt, S., Heading, R. C., Carter, D. C., et al.: Effect of gel, fibre or gastric emptying on absorption of glucose and paracetamol. Lancet 1: 636–639, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    James, W. P. T.: Dietary fiber and mineral absorption, in Spiller, G. A., and Kay, R. M. (eds.): Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber. Plenum Press, New York, 1980, pp. 39–59.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Land, P. C., and Bruce, W. R.: Fecal mutagens: A possible relationship with colorectal cancer. Sci. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 19: 167, 1978.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Southgate, D. A. T., Branch, W. J., Hill, M. J., et al.: Metabolic responses to dietary supplements of bran. Metabolism 25: 1129–1135, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Southgate, D. A. T., and Durnin, J. V. G. A.: An experimental reassessment of the factors used in the calculation of the energy value of human diets. Br. J. Nutr. 24: 517–535, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kelsay, J. L., Behall, K. M., and Prather, E. S.: Effect of fiber from fruits and vegetables on metabolic responses of human subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 1149–1153, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kay, R. M., and Truswell, A. S.: Effect of citrus pectin or blood lipids and fecal steroid excretion in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 171–175, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Painter, N. S., Truelove, S. C., Ardran, G. M., et al.: Segmentation and localization of intraluminal pressures in the human colon with special reference to the pathogenesis of colon diverticula. Gastroenterology 49: 169–177, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Broadribb, A. J. M., and Humphreys, D. M.: Diverticular disease: Three studies—Treatment with bran (part II). Br. Med. J. 1: 425–428, 1976.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Painter, N. S.: Treatment of diverticular disease (abstract). Br. Med. J. 2: 156, 1971.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Broadribb, A. J. M.: Treatment of symptomatic diverticular disease with a high fiber diet. Lancet 1: 664–666, 1977.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Almy, T. P., and Howell, D. A.: Diverticular disease of the colon. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 324–331, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Segal, I., Solomon, A., and Hunt, J. A.: Emergence of diverticular disease in the urban South African Black. Gastroenterology 72: 215–219, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Painter, N. S., and Burkitt, D. P.: Diverticular disease of the colon: A deficiency disease of Western civilization. Br. Med. J. 2: 450–454, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Heller, S. N., and Hackler, L. R.: Changes in the crude fiber content of the American diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31: 1510–1514, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stemmerman, G. N., and Yatani, R.: Diverticulosis and polyps of the large intestine: A necropsy study of Hawaii-Japanese. CA 31: 1260–1270, 1973.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gear, J. S. S., Ware, A., Fursdon, P., et al.: Svmptomless diverticular disease and intake of dietary fiber. Lancet 1: 511–514, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Broadribb, A. J. M., and Humphries, D. M.: Diverticular disease: Three studies—Relation to other disorders and fiber intake (part I). Br. Med. J. 1: 424–425, 1976.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Burkitt, D. P.: Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 28: 3–13, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jensen, O. M., MacLennan, R., and Wahrendorf, J.: Diet, bowel function, fecal characteristics, and large bowel cancer in Denmark and Finland. Nutr. Cancer 4: 5–22, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Haenszel, W., and Kurihara, M.: Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40: 43–68, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jenkins, D. J. A.: Dietary fiber and carbohydrate metabolism, in Spiller, G. A., and Kay, R. M. (eds.): Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber. Plenum Press, New York, 1980, pp. 175–192.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kichm, T. G., Anderson, J. W., and Ward, K.: Beneficial effects of a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet on hyperglycemic diabetic men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 895–899, 1976.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mirinda, P. M., and Horwitz, D. L.: High fiber diets in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Ann. Intern. Med. 88: 482–486, 1978.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jackson, W. P. U.: Diabetes mellitus in different countries and different races: Prevalence and major features. Acta Diabetol. Lat. 7: 361–401, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Trowell, H.: Diabetes mellitus death rates in England and Wales 1920-1970 and food supplies. Lancet 2: 998–1002, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Trowell, H. C.: Dietary fiber hypothesis of the etiology of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 24: 762–765, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Anderson, J. W., and Chen, W. L.: Plant fiber—Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 346–363, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Anderson, J. W., Chen, W., Story, L., et al.: Hypocholesterolemic effects of soluble-fiber rich foods for hypercholesterolemic men (abstract). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37: 699, 1983.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kromhout, D., Bosschieter, E. B., and Coulander, C. D. L.: Dietary fiber and 10 year mortality from coronary heart disease, cancer, and all causes, the Zutphen study. Lancet 2: 518–522, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Morris, J. N., Marr, J. C. N., and Clayton, D. G.: Diet and heart: A postscript. Br. Med. J. 2: 1307–1314, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Needleman, P., and Greenwald, J. E.: Atriopeptin: A cardiac hormone intimately involved in fluid, electrolyte, and blood pressure homeostasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 828–834, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fries, E. D.: Salt, volume and the prevention of hypertension. Circulation 53: 589–595, 1976.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Fregly, M. J.: Attempts to estimate sodium intake in humans, in Horan, M. J., Blaustein, M., and Dunbar, J. B. (eds.): National Institute of Health Workshop on Nutrition and Hypertension. Biomedical Information Corp, New York, 1985, pp. 93–112.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Goldman, L., and Cook, E. F.: The deline in ischemic heart disease mortality rates: An analysis of the comparative effects of medical interventions and changes in lifestyle. Ann. Intern. Med. 101: 825–836, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dahl, L. K., and Love, R. A.: Etiological role of sodium chloride intake in essential hypertension in humans. JAMA 164: 397–400, 1957.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dahl, L. K.: Salt intake and salt need. N. Engl. J. Med. 258: 1152–1205, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Allen, F. M.: Treatment of arterial hypertension. Med. Clin. North Am. 6: 475–481, 1922.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dahl, L. K.: Salt and hypertension. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25: 231–244, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shaper, A. G.: Cardiovascular disease in the tropics. III. Blood pressure and hypertension. Br. Med. J. 3: 805–807, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Oliver, W. J., Cohen, E. L., and Neel, J. V.: Blood pressure, sodium intake and sodium related hormones in the Yanomamo indians, a “no-salt” culture. Circulation 52: 146–151, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sinnett, P. F., and Whyte, H. M.: Epidemiological studies in a total highland population, Tukisenta, New Guinea. J. Chronic Dis. 26: 265–290, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Meneely, G. R., and Battarbee, H. D.: Sodium and potassium. Nutr. Rev. 34: 225–235, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Dahl, L. K., Knudsen, K. D., Heine, M. A., et al.: Effects of chronic excess salt ingestion, modification of experimental hypertension in the rat by variations in the diet. Circ. Res. 22: 11–18, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hilton, P. J.: Cellular sodium transport in essential hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 222–229, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Murray, R. H., Luft, F. C., Bloch, R., et al.: Blood pressures responses to extremes of sodium intake in normal man. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 159: 432–436, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Sasaki, N.: The relationship of salt intake to hypertension in the Japanese. Geriatrics 19: 735–744, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Scotch, N. A.: A preliminary report on the relation of sociocultural factors to hypertension among the Zulu. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 84: 1000–1009, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Maddocks, I.: Blood pressure in melanesians. Med. J. Aust. 1: 1123–1126, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Prior, I., Evans, J., Harvey, H., et al.: Sodium intake and blood pressure in two Polynesian populations. N. Engl. J. Med. 279: 515–520, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Allen, F. M.: Arterial hypertension. JAMA 74: 652–655, 1920.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dole, V. P., Dahl, L. K., Cotzias, G. C., et al.: Dietary treatment of hypertension: Clinical and metabolic studies of patients on the rice-fruit diet. J. Clin. Invest. 29: 1189–1206, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dole, V. P., Dahl, L. K., Cotzias, G., et al.: Dietary treatment of hypertension (part II). Sodium depletion as related to the therapeutic effect. J. Clin. Invest. 30: 584–595, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    McDonough, J., and Wilhelm, C. M.: The effect of excess salt intake on human blood pressure. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 21: 180–181, 1964.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Watkin, D., Froeb, H., Hatch, F., et al.: Effects of diet in essential hypertension. Results with unmodified Kempner rice diet in fifty hospitalized patients (part II). Am. J. Med. 9: 441–493, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Parijs, J., Joossens, J., Van Der Linden, L., et al.: Moderate sodium restriction and diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Am. Heart J. 85: 22–34, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Morgan, T., Gillies, A., Morgan, G., et al.: Hypertension treated by salt restriction. Lancet 1: 227–230, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sullivan, J., Ratts, T., Taylor, J., et al.: Hemodynamic effects of dietary sodium in man. Hypertension 2: 506–514, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Beard, T., Gray, W., Cooke, H., et al.: Randomized controlled trial of a no-added-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet 2: 455–458, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    MacGregor, G., Best, F., Cam, J., et al.: Double-blind randomized crossover trial of moderate sodium restriction in essential hypertension. Lancet 1: 351–355, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Assembly of Life Sciences: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1982.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sporn, M. B., and Newton, D. L.: Chemoprevention of cancer with retinoids. Fed. Proc. 38: 2528–2534, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kummet, T., Moon, T. E., and Meyskens, F. L.: Vitamin A: Evidence for its preventive role in human cancer. Nutr. Cancer 5: 96–106, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    McCarron, D. A., Morris, C. D., Henry, H. J., et al.: Nutrient intake and blood pressure in the United States. Science 224: 1392–1398, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    McCarron, D. A., and Morris, C. D.: Calcium and hypertension, evidence for a protective action of the cation, in NIH Workshop on Nutrition and Hypertension. Biomed Information Corp., New York, 1985, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kaplan, N. M.: Non-drug treatment of hypertension. Ann. Intern. Med. 102: 359–373, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Resnick, L. M., Laragh, J. H., Sealey, J. E., et al.: Divalent cations in essential hypertension. Relations between serum ionized calcium, magnesium and plasma renin activity. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 888–891, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Committee on Iron Deficiency, Council on Foods and Nutrition, American Medical Association: Iron deficiency in the United States. JAMA 203: 119–124, 1968.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lynch, S. R., Finch, C. A., Monsen, E. R., et al.: Iron status of elderly Americans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36: 1032–1045, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Atkinson, R. L., Russ, C. S., Ciavarella, P. A., et al.: A comprehensive approach to outpatient obesity management. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 84: 439–444, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Brownell, K. D.: The psychology and physiology of obesity: Implications for screening and treatment. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 84: 406–413, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Thompson, K., Fletcher, S., O’Malley, M. S., et al.: Long term outcomes of morbidly obese patients treated with gastrogastrostomy. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 1: 85–89, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Levy, R. I., and Feinlieb, M.: Risk factors for coronary artery disease and their management, in Braunwald, E. (ed.): Heart Disease. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1984, pp. 1209–1234.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial: Risk factor changes and mortality results. JAMA 248: 1465–1477, 1982.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Stern, M. P.: The recent decline in ischemic heart disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 91: 630–640, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene C. CorbettJr.
    • 1
  • Daniel M. Becker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of Virginia School of MedicineCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations