• Laurence B. Gardner


Nephrolithiasis is a common, painful, and costly condition which afflicts approximately 2–3% of the total population of the United States and western Europe.1 The risk of recurrence in an individual who has had a single episode of nephrolithiasis has been estimated to be 20–50%.1,2 Thus, except in the rare instances of familial types of nephrolithiasis, the physician must wait for the first episode and then practice secondary prevention (that is, prevention of recurrent stone disease).


Uric Acid Stone Formation Calcium Oxalate Renal Tubular Acidosis Calcium Oxalate Stone 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laurence B. Gardner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA

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