• Jay M. Sosenko


Diabetes is a major source of morbidity and mortality. It can lead to a number of complications including retinopathy, kidney failure, and neuropathy. Diabetic patients have a propensity for the development of atherosclerosis and they are at high risk for myocardial infarction. In addition to these chronic complications, acute complications such as ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, and hypoglycemia can present major problems.


Diabetic Patient Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic Retinopathy Gestational Diabetes Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Drury, T. F.: Disability among adult diabetics, in Diabetes in America. NIH Publication no. 85-1468, XXVII-7, Washington, DC, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tajima, N., LaPorte, R. E., Hibi, I., Kitagawa, T., Fujito, H., and Drash, A.: A comparison of the epidemiology of youth-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus between Japan and the United States (Allegheny County, Pennsylvania). Diabetes Care 8(suppl 1): 17–23, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoon, J., Austin, M., Onodera, T., and Notkins, A. L.: Virus-induced diabetes mellitus: Isolation of a virus from a child with diabetic ketoacidosis. New Engl. J. Med. 300: 1173–1179, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stiller, C. R., Dupre, J., Gent, M., et al.: Effects of cylcosporine immunosuppresion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of recent onset. Science 223: 1362–1367, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Newburgh, L. H.: Control of hyperglycemia of obese “diabetics” by weight reduction. Ann. Intern. Med. 17: 935–942, 1942.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Osserman, K. E., and Dolger, H.: Obesity in diabetes: A study of therapy with anorexigenic drugs. Ann. Intern. Med. 34: 72–79, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Canill, G. F., Etzwiler, D. D., and Freinkel, N.: “Control” and diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 294: 1004–1005, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Siperstein, M. D., Foster, D. W., Knowles, H. C., Jr., Levine, R., Madison, L. L., and Roth, J.: Control of blood glucose and diabetic vascular disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 1060–1063, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Skyler, J. S.: Complications of diabetes mellitus: Relationship to metabolic dysfunction. Diabetes Care 2: 499–509, 1979.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sosenko, J. M., Gadia, M. T., Fournier, A. M., O’Connell, M. T., Aguiar, M. D., and Skyler, J. S.: Body stature as a risk factor for diabetic sensory neuropathy. Am. J. Med. 80: 1031–1034, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herman, W., Halpern, M., Pack, B. E., Beasley, J., and Callaghan, C.: Improving eye care for persons with diabetes mellitus—Michigan. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 34: 697–699, 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dwyer, M. S., Melton, J., Ballard, D. J., Palumbo, P. J., Trautmann, J. C., and Chu-Pin, C.: Incidence of diabetic retinopathy and blindness: A population-based study in Rochester Minnesota. Diabetes Care 8: 316–322, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein, R., Klein, B. E. K., and Moss, S. E.: A population-based study of diabetic retinopathy in insulin using patients diagnosed before 30 years of age. Diabetes Care 8(suppl 1): 71–76, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Knowler, W. C., Bennett, P. H., and Ballintine, E. J.: Increased incidence of retinopathy in diabetics with elevated blood pressure. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 645–650, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    West, K. M., Erdreich, L. J., and Stober, J. A.: A detailed study of risk factors for retinopathy and nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes 29: 501–508, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mecklenberg, R. S., Guinn, T. S., Sannar, C. A., and Blumenstein, B. A.: Malfunction of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion systems: A one-year prospective study of 127 patients. Diabetes Care 9: 351–355, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herman, W. H., and Teutsch, S. M.: Kidney disease associated with diabetes, in Diabetes in America. NIH Publication no. 85-1468, XIV-1, Washington, DC, 1985.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pirart, J.: Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: A prospective study of 4,400 patients observed between 1947 and 1973. Diabetes Care 1: 168–188, 1978.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mogensen, C. E.: Long-term antihypertensive treatment inhibiting progression to diabetic nephropathy. Br. Med. J. 285: 685–688, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mogensen, C. E.: Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 356–360, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Viberti, G., and Keen, H.: The patterns of proteinuria in diabetes mellitus. Relevance to pathogenesis and prevention of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 33: 686–692, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gabbay, K. H.: The sorbitol pathway and the complications of diabetes. N. Engl. J. Med. 288: 831–836, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greene, D. A., DeJesus, P. V., and Winegrad, A. I.: Effects of insulin and dietary myoinositol on impaired peripheral motor nerve conduction velocity in acute streptozotocin diabetes. J. Clin. Invest. 55: 1326–1336, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vlassava, H., Brownlee, M., and Cerami, A.: Nonenzymatic glycosylation of peripheral nerve protein in diabetes mellitus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 5190–5192, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sugimura, K., and Dyck, P. J.: Multifocal fiber loss in proximal sciatic nerve in symmetrical distal diabetic neuropathy. J. Neurol. Sci. 53: 501–509, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., Pfeiffer, M. A., et al.: Nerve conduction abnormalities in untreated maturity onset diabetes: Relation to fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. Ann. Intern. Med. 90: 298–303, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graf, R. J., Halter, J. B., Pfeiffer, M. A., et al.: Glycemia control and nerve conduction abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Ann. Intern. Med. 94: 307–311, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boulton, A. J. M., Drury, J., Clarke, B., and Ward, J. D.: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 5: 386–390, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Judzewitsch, R. G., Jaspan, J. B., Polonsky, K. S., et al.: Aldose reduciase inhibition improves nerve condition velocity in diabetic patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 308: 119–125, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levin, M. E.: Diabetic peripheral vascular disease, in Rifkin, H., and Raskin, P. (eds.): Diabetes Mellitus, Vol. V. Robert J. Brady, Bowie, MD, 1982, pp. 281–290.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boulton, A. J. M., Kubrusly, D. B., Bowker, J. H., et al.: Impaired vibratory sensation and diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetic Med. 3: 335–337, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ostrander, L. D., Jr., Frances, T., Jr., Hayner, N. S., Kjelsberg, M. O., and Epstein, F. H.: Relationship of cardiovascular disease to hyperglycemia. Ann. Intern. Med. 62: 1188–1198, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kannel, W. B., and McGee, D. L.: Diabetes and glucose tolerance as risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The Framingham study. Diabetes Care 2: 120–126, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sosenko, J. M., Breslow, J. L., Miettinen, O. S., and Gabbay, K. H.: Hyperglycemia and plasma lipid levels. A prospective study of young insulin-dependent diabetic patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 650–654, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schonfeld, G., Birge, C., Miller, J. P. Kessler, G., and Santiago, J.: Apolipoprotein B levels and altered lipoprotein composition in diabetes. Diabetes 23: 827–834, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nikkila, E. A., and Hormila, P.: Serum lipids and lipoproteins in insulin treated diabetes: demonstration of increased high density lipoprotein concentrations. Diabetes 27: 1078–1086, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Howard, B. V., Savage, P. J., Bennion, L. J., and Bennett, P. H.: Lipoprotein composition in diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis 30: 153–162, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garcia, M. J., McNamara, P. M., Gordon, T., and Kannel, W. B.: Morbidity and mortality in diabetics in the Framingham population. Diabetes 23: 105–111, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Modan, M., Halkin, H., Shiomo, A., et al.: Hyperinsulinemia—A link between hypertension, obesity and glucose intolerance. J. Clin. Invest. 75: 809–817, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fournier, A. M., Gadia, M. T., Kubrusly, D. B., Skyler, J. S., and Sosenko, J. M.: Blood pressure, insulin, and glycemia in nondiabetic subjects. Am. J. Med. 80: 861–864, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    DeFronzo, R. A.: The effect of insulin on renal sodium metabolism. Diabetologia 21: 165–171, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barrett-Connor, E., and Wingard, D. L.: Sex differential in ischemic heart disease mortality in diabetics: A prospective population-based study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 118: 489–496, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Waiden, C. E., Knopp, R. H., Wahl, P. W., Beach, K. W., and Strandness, E., Jr.: Sex differences in the effect of diabetes mellitus on lipoprotein triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 953–959, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pyorala, K.: Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin in the incidence of coronary heart disease: Results from two population studies in Finland. Diabetes Care 2: 131–141, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Freinkel, J., Metzger, B. E., and Potter, J. M.: Pregnancy in diabetes, in Ellenberg, M., and Rifkin, H. (eds.): Diabetes Mellitus: Theory and Practice. Medical Examination Publishing Co., New York, 1983, pp. 689–714.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Freinkel, N., Dooley, S. L., and Metzger, B. E.: Current concepts: Care of the pregnant woman with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 96–101, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sepe, S. J., Connell, F. A., Geiss, L. S., and Teutsch, S. M.: Gestational diabetes: Incidence, maternal characteristics, and perinatal outcome. Diabetes 34 (suppl 2): 13–16, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Landon, M. B., and Gabbe, S. G.: Antepartum fetal surveillance in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 34 (suppl 2): 50–54, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sosenko, I. R., Kitzmiller, J. L., Loo, S. W. H., Blix, P., Rubenstein, A. H., and Gabbay, K. H.: The infant of the diabetic mother: Correlation of increased cord C-peptide levels with macrosomia and hypoglycemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 859–862, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sosenko, J. M., Kitzmiller, J. L., Fluckinger, R., Loo, S. W. H., Younger, D. M., and Gabbay, K. H.: Umbilical cord glycosylated hemoglobin in infants of diabetic mothers: Relationships to neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and cord serum C-peptide. Diabetes Care 5: 566–570, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Miller, E., Hare, J. W., Cloherty, J. P., et al.: Elevated maternal hemoglobin A1C in early pregnancy and major congenital anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers. N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 1331–1334, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Summary and Recommendations of the Second International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes 34 (suppl 2): 123–126, 1985.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Larson B., Svardsudd K., Welin L., et al.: Abdominal adipose tissue distribution, obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease and death: 13 year follow-up of participants in the study of men born in 1913. Br. Med. J. 288: 1401–1404, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Krolewski A. S., Canessa M., Warram J. H., et al.: Predisposition to hypertension and susceptibility to renal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 318: 140–145, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay M. Sosenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of Miami School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations