Advertisement

Regulation of Translation of Viral mRNAs

  • Marie-Dominique Morch
  • Rosaura P. C. Valle
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 136)

Abstract

Translation constitutes a crucial step in virus development, since it leads to the production of the structural and nonstructural proteins required by the virus. Because of their relative simplicity, viral genomes, and in particular viral RNA genomes, have served as model systems to investigate the steps involved in protein synthesis and have successfully helped to unravel the various strategies of translation known to occur on mRNA templates.

Keywords

Termination Codon Leader Sequence Nonstructural Protein Viral mRNAs Rous Sarcoma Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Viruses and corresponding family

AMV

alfalfa mosaic virus (ilarvirus)

BBV

black beetle virus (nodavirus)

BLV

bovine leukemia virus (retrovirus)

BMV

brome mosaic virus (bromovirus)

BNYVV

beet necrotic yellow vein virus (furovirus)

CaMV

cauliflower mosaic virus (caulimovirus)

CPMV

cowpea mosaic virus (comovirus)

CPV

cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (reovirus)

EMCV

encephalomyocarditis virus (Picornavirus)

FeLV

feline leukemia virus (retrovirus)

FMDV

foot-and-mouth disease virus (Picornavirus)

HSV

Herpes simplex virus (herpesvirus)

HTLV

human T-cell leukemia virus (retrovirus)

IPNV

infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (binarvirus)

Mo

MuLV: Moloney murine leukemia virus (retrovirus)

Ra-MuLV

Rauscher murine leukemia virus (retrovirus)

Mo-MuSV

Moloney murine sarcoma virus (retrovirus)

RSV

Rous sarcoma virus (retrovirus)

SSHV

snowshoe hare virus (bunyavirus)

STNV

satellite of tobacco necrosis virus (tobacco necrosis virus family)

SFV

Semliki forest virus (alphavirus)

SV40

simian virus 40 (papovavirus)

TMV

tobacco ringspot virus (nepovirus)

TVMV

tobacco mosaic virus (tobamovirus)

TNV

tobacco necrosis virus (nepovirus)

TYMV

turnip yellow mosaic virus (tymovirus)

VSV

vesicular stomatitis virus (rhabdovirus)

Others

ds

double-stranded

VPg

virus protein genomic

kDa

kilodalton

kb

kilobase

ORF

open reading frame

NT

nucleotide

RER

rough endoplamic reticulum

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    Filipowicz, W. (1978), FEBS Lett. 96, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    Banerjee, A.K. (1980), Microbiol.Rev. 44, 175–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Expression of Eukaryotic Viral and Cellular Genes (1981), R.F. Pettersson, L. Kaariainen, H. Soderlund, and N. Oker-Blom, eds., Academic Press, London pp. 1–324.Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    Interaction of Translational and Transcriptional Controls in the Regulation of Gene Expression (1982), M. Grunberg-Manago and B. Safer, eds. Elsevier Biomedical, New York, pp. 1–524.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    Kozak, M. (1983), Microbiol. Rev. 47, 1–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Kozak, M. (1984), Nucl.Acids Res. 12, 857–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7).
    Moldave, K. (1985), Amm.Rev.Biochem. 54, 1109–1149.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    Rhoads, R.E. (1985), Prog.Mol.Subcell.Biol. 8, 104–155.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    Pain, V.M. (1985), Biochem. J. 235, 625–637.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    Kozak, M. (1986) Adv.Virus Res. 31, 229–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Viral Messenger RNA Transcription: Processing, Splicing and Molecular Structure (1985), Y. Becker, ed., Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp. 1–383.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    HsuChen, C.C., and Dubin, D.T. (1967), Nature (London) 264, 190–191.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Lee, Y.N., Nomoto, A., Detjen, B.M. and Wimmer, E. (1977), Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci USA 74, 59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14).
    Wimmer, E. (1982), Cell 28, 199–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Van Wezenbeek, P., Verver, J., Harmsen, J., Vos, P., and Van Kämmen, A. (1983), EMBO J. 2, 941–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16).
    Lomonossoff, G.P., and Shanks, M. (1983). EMBO J. 2, 2253–2258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17).
    Domler, L.L., Franklin, K.M., Shahabuddin, M., Hellmann, G.M., Overmeyer, J.H., Hiermatch, S.T., Siaw, M.F.E., Lomonossoff, G.P., Shaw, J.G. and Rhoads, R.E. (1986), Nucl. Acids. Res. 14, 5417–5430.Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    Ambros, V. and Baltimore, D. (1978). J. Biol. Chem. 253, 5263–5266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19).
    Rothberg, P.G., Harris, T.J.R., Nomoto, A. and Wimmer, E. (1978), Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci USA 75, 4868–4872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Fernandez-Munoz, R. and Darnell, J.E. (1976), J. Virol. 18, 719–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21).
    Hewlett, M.J., Rose, J.K. and Baltimore, D. (1976). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Nomoto, A., Lee, Y.F. and Wimmer, E. (1976), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 375–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23).
    Ambros, V., Pettersson, R.F. and Baltimore, D. (1978) Cell 15, 1439–1446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24).
    Ambros, V. and Baltimore, D. (1980), J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6739–6744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25).
    Wimmer, E. and Reichman, M.E. (1968), Science 160, 1452–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Wimmer, E., Chang, A.Y., Clark, J.M. and Reichman, M.E. (1968), J. Mol. Biol. 38, 59–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27).
    Lesnaw, J.A. and Reichman, M.E. (1970), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 66, 140–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28).
    Furuichi, Y., LaFiandra, A. and Shatkin, A.J. (1977) Nature (London) 266, 235–239.Google Scholar
  29. 29).
    Lodish, H.F., and Rose, J.K. (1977), J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1181–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30).
    Wodnar-Filipowicz, A., Szczesna, E., Zan-Kowalczewska, M., Muthukrishnan, S., Szybiak, U., Legocki, A. and Filipowicz, W. (1978). Eur. J. Biochem. 92, 69–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31).
    Muthukrishnan, S., Moss, B., Cooper, J.A. and Maxwell, E. (1978). J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1710–1715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32).
    Smith, R.E. and Clark, J.M. (1979). Biochemistry 18, 1366–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33).
    Moyer, S.A. (1981). Virology 112, 157–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34).
    Shimotohno, K., Kodama, Y., Hashimoto, J. and Miura, K. (1977). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 2734–2738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35).
    Muthukrishnan, S., Morgan, M., Banerjee, A.K., and Shatkin, A.J. (1976). Biochemistry 15, 5761–5768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36).
    Rose, J.K. (1975). J. Biol. Chem. 250, 8098–8104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37).
    Herson, D., Schmidt, A., Seal, S.N., Marcus, A., and Van Vloten-Doting, L. (1979). J. Biol. Chem. 254, 8245–8249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38).
    Sonenberg, N., Rupprecht, K.M., Hecht, S.M. and Shatkin, A.J. (1979) Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4345–4349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39).
    Hellman, G.M., Chu, L.Y. and Rhoads, R.E. (1982). J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4056–4062.Google Scholar
  40. 40).
    Webb, N.R., Chari, R.V.J., DePillis, G., Kozarich, J.W. and Rhoads R.E. (1984). Biochemistry 23, 177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41).
    Sonenberg, N., Morgan, M.A., Merrick, W.C. and Shatkin, A.J. (1978). Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 75, 4843–4847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42).
    Lee, K.A.W. and Sonenberg, N. (1982). Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 79, 3447–3451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43).
    Sonenberg, N. and Lee, K.A.W. (1982) see ref. 4, pp. 373–388.Google Scholar
  44. 44).
    Tahara, S.M., Morgan, M.A. and Shatkin, A.J. (1981). J. Biol. Chem. 256, 7691–7694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45).
    Shatkin, A.J., Darzynkiewicw, E., Nakashima, K., Sonenberg, N. and Tahara, S.M. (1981), see ref. 3, pp. 173–187.Google Scholar
  46. 46).
    Tahara, S.M., Morgan, M.A., Grifo, J.A., Merrick W.C. and Shatkin, A.J. (1982) see ref. 4, pp. 359–372.Google Scholar
  47. 47).
    Edery, I., Humbelin, M., Davreau, A., Lee, K.A.W., Milburn, S., Hershey, J.W.B., Trachsel, H. and Sonnenberg, N. (1983). J. Biol. Chem 258, 11398–11403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48).
    Leibowitz, R. and Penman, S. (1971). J. Virol. 8, 661–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49).
    Doyle, S. and Holland J. (1972). J. Virol. 9, 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50).
    Ehrenfeld, E. and Lund, H. (1977). Virology 80, 297–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51).
    Ehrenfeld, E. (1982). Cell 28, 435–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52).
    Etchison, D., Milburn, C.D., Edery, I., Sonenberg, N. and Hershey, J.W.B. (1982). J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14806–14810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53).
    Sonenberg, N. and Trachsel, H. (1982). Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 21, 65–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54).
    Hansen, J. and Ehrenfeld, E. (1981). J. Virol. 38, 438–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55).
    Hansen, J., Etchinson, D., Hershey, J.W.B. and Ehrenfeld, E. (1982). J. Virol. 42, 200–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56).
    Lloyd, R.E., Toyoda, H., Etchinson, D., Wimmer, E. and Ehrenfeld, E. (1986). Virology 150, 299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57).
    Sarnow, P., Bernstein, H.D. and Baltimore, D. (1986). Proc.Natl.Acad. Sci.USA 83, 571–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58).
    Etchinson, D. and Fout, S. (1985). J. Virol. 54, 634–638.Google Scholar
  59. 59).
    Mosenkis, J., Daniels-McQueen, S., Janovec, S., Duncan, R., Hershey, J.W.B., Grifo, J.A., Merrick, W.C. and Thach, R.E. (1985). J. Virol. 54, 643–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60).
    Jen, G., Detjen, B.M. and Thach, R.E. (1980). J. Virol. 35, 150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61).
    Sonenberg, N. (1981). Nucl. Acids. Res. 9, 1643–1656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62).
    Grifo, J.A., Tahara, S.M., Leis, J.P., Morgan, M.A., Shatkin, A.J. and Merrick, W.C. (1982). J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5246–5252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63).
    Edery, I., Lee, K.A.W. and Sonenberg, N. (1984). Biochemistry 23, 2456–2462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64).
    Ray, B.K., Lawson, T.C., Kramer, J.C., Cladaras, M.H., Grifo, J.A., Abramson, R.D., Merrick, W.C. and Thach, R.E. (1985). J. Biol. Chem. 260, 7651–7658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65).
    Jackson, R.J. (1982). in Protein Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes, R. Perez-Bercoff, ed., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 363–418.Google Scholar
  66. 66).
    Gehrke, L., Auron, P.E., Quigley, G.J., Rich, A. and Sonenberg, N. (1983). Biochemistry 22, 5157–5164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67).
    Morgan, M.A. and Shatkin, A.J. (1980). Biochemistry 19, 5960–5966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68).
    Kozak, M. (1980) Cell 19, 79–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69).
    Lee, K.A.W., Guertin, D. and Sonenberg N. (1983). J. Biol. Chem. 258, 707–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70).
    Pelletier, J. and Sonenberg, N. (1985). Cell 40, 515–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71).
    Svitkin, Y.V., Maslova, S.V. and Agol, V.l. (1985). Virology 147, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72).
    Darveau, A., Pelletier, J. and Sonenberg, N. (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 2315–2319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73).
    Florentz, C., Briand, J.P. and Giege, R. (1984). FEBS Lett. 176, 295–300.Google Scholar
  74. 74).
    Benincourt, C. and Haenni, A.L. (1978). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 84, 831–839.Google Scholar
  75. 75).
    Godefroy-Colburn, T., Thivent, C. and Pinck, L. (1985). Eur J. Biochem. 147, 541–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76).
    Zagorski, W. (1978). Eur J. Biochem. 86, 465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77).
    Pyne, J.W. and Hall, T.C. (1979). Intervirology 11, 23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78).
    Friesen, P.E. and Rueckert, R.R. (1984). J. Virol. 49, 116–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79).
    Hunter, T.R., Hunt, T. Knowland, J. and Zimmern, D. (1976) Nature (London). 260, 759–764.Google Scholar
  80. 80).
    Benincourt, C., Haenni, A.L. and Chapeville, F. (1978). in Third International Symposium on Ribosomes and Nuclei Acid Metabolism, J. Zelinka, and J. Balan, eds., Publishing House of the Slovak Acadmy of Sciences, Bratislava, pp. 95–102.Google Scholar
  81. 81).
    Kassanis, B. (1968) Adv. Virus. Res. 13, 147–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82).
    Waiden, W.E., Godefroy-Colburn, T. and Thach, R.E. (1981). J. Biol. Chem. 256, 11739–11746.Google Scholar
  83. 83).
    Ray, B.K., Brendler, T.G., Adya, S., Daniels-McQueen, S., Miller, J.K., Hershey, J.W.B., Grifo, J.A., Merrick, W.C. and Thach, R. (1983). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 663–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84).
    Kozak, M. (1981) Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 93, 81–123.Google Scholar
  85. 85).
    Pinck, M., Fritsch, C., Ravelonandro, M., Thivent, C. and Pinck, L. (1981). Nucl. Acids Res. 9, 1087–1100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86).
    Kitamura, N., Semler, B.L., Rothberg, P.G., Larsen, G.R., Adler, C.J., Dorner, A.J., Emini, E.A., Hanecak, R., Lee, J.J., Van der Werf, S., Anderson, C.W. and Wimmer, E. (1981). Nature (London) 291, 547–553.Google Scholar
  87. 87).
    Racaniello, V.R. and Baltimore, D. (1981). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 4887–4891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88).
    Kozak, M. (1982). J. Mol. Biol. 156, 807–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89).
    Kozak, M. (1981). Nucl. Acids Res. 9, 5233–5252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90).
    Darlix, J.L., Zucker, M. and Spahr, P.F. (1982). Nucl. Acids Res. 10, 5183–5186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91).
    Jay, G., Nomura, S., Anderson, C.W., Khoury, G. (1981). Nature (London) 291, 346–349.Google Scholar
  92. 92).
    Ghosh, P.K., Reddy, V.B., Swinscoe, J., Choudary, P.V., Lebowitz, P. and Weissmann, S.M. (1978). J. Biol. Chem. 253, 3643–3647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93).
    Hackett, P.B., Petersen, R.B., Hensel, C.H., Albericio, F., Gunderson, S.I., Palmemberg, A. and Barany, G. (1986). J. Mol. Biol. 190, 45–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94).
    Sieg, K. and Gronenborn, B. (1982). In NATO Advanced Study Institute/FEBS Advanced Course on Structure and Function of Plant Genomes Porto Portese, Italy. Abstract p. 154.Google Scholar
  95. 95).
    Dixon, L., Jiricny, J. and Hohn, T. (1986). Gene 41, 225–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96).
    Franssen, H., Goldbach, R., Broekhuijsen, M., Moerman, M. and Van Kammen, A. (1982). J. Virol. 41, 8–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97).
    Preston, C.M. and MacGeoch (1981). J. Virol. 38, 593–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98).
    Marsden, H.S., Haarr, L. and Preston, C.M. (1983). J. Virol. 46, 434–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99).
    Beck, E., Fross, S., Strebel, K., Cattaneo, R. and Feil, G. (1983). Nucl. Acids. Res. 11, 7873–7885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100).
    Giorgi, C., Blumenberg, B. and Kolakovsky, D. (1983). Cell 35, 829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101).
    Curran, J.A., Richardson, C. and Kolakovsky, D. (1986). J. Virol. 57, 684–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102).
    Chan, W.K., Penaranda, M.E., Crawford, S.E. and Estes, M.K. (1986). Virology 151, 243–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103).
    Laprevotte, I., Hampe, A., Sherr, C.J. and Galibert, F. (1984). J. Virol. 50, 884–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104).
    Bos, J.L., Polder, L.J., Bernards, R., Schrier, P.I., Van den Elsen, P.J., Van der Erb, A.J. and Van Ormondt, H. (1981). Cell 27, 121–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105).
    Bishop, D.H.L., Gould, K.G., Akashi, H. and Clerx-Vab Haaster, C. (1982). Nucl. Acids Res. 10, 3703–3713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106).
    Enst, H. and Shatkin, A.J. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 48–52.Google Scholar
  107. 107).
    Sarkar, G., Pelletier, J., Bassel-Duby, R., Jayasuriya, A., Fields, B.N. and Sonenberg, N. (1985). J. Virol. 54, 720–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108).
    Shaw, M.W., Choppin, P.W. and Lamb R.A. (1983). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 4879–4883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109).
    Dixon, L.K. and Hohn, T. (1984). EMBO J. 3, 2731–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110).
    Mertens, P.P.C and Dobos, P. (1982). Nature (London) 297, 243–246.Google Scholar
  111. 111).
    Duncan, R. and Dobos, P. (1986). Nucl. Acids Res. 14, 5934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112).
    Celma, M.L., Dhar, R., Pan, J. and Weissman, S.M. (1977). Nucl. Acids Res. 4, 2549–2559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113).
    Barkan, A. and Mertz, J.E. (1981). J. Virol. 37, 730–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114).
    Hay, N., Skolnik-David, H. and Aloni, Y. (1982). Cell 29, 183–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115).
    Liu, C.C., Simonsen, C.C. and Levinson, A.D. (1984). Nature (London) 309, 82–85.Google Scholar
  116. 116).
    Bandyopadhyay, P.K. and Temin, H.N. (1984) Mol. Cell. Biol. 4, 743–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117).
    Vos, P., Verver, J., Van Wezenbeek, P., Van Kammen, A. and Goldbach, R. (1984). EMBO J. 3, 3049–3053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118).
    Huez, G., Bruck, C., Van Vloten-Doting, L., Goldbach, R. and Verduin, B. (1983). Eur. J. Biochem. 130, 205–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119).
    Neil, J.C., Smart, J.E., Hayman, M.J. and Jarrett, O. (1980). Virology 105, 250–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120).
    Sherr, C.J., Donner, L., Fedele, L.A., Turek, L., Evens, J. and Ruscetti, S.K. (1980). in Feline Leukemia Virus, W.D. Hardy, M. Essex, and A.J. McClelland, eds., Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp. 293–307.Google Scholar
  121. 121).
    Shealy, D.J., Mosser, A.G., and Rueckert, R.R. (1980). J. Virol. 34, 431–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122).
    Schwartz, D.E., Tizard, R. and Gilbert, W. (1983)., Cell 32, 853–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123).
    Darlix, J.L., Spahr, P.F., Bromley, P.A. and Jaton, J.C. (1979). J. Virol. 29, 597–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124).
    Darlix, J.L., Meric, C., and Spahr, P.F. (1985). see ref. 10, pp. 355–372.Google Scholar
  125. 125).
    Akusjarvi, G., Mathews, M., Andersson, P., Vennstrom, B. and Pettersson, U. (1980). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2424–2428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126).
    Monstein, B. and Philipson, L. (1981). Nucl. Acids Res. 9, 4239–4250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127).
    Thimmappaya, B., Weinberger, C., Schneider, R.J. and Shenk, T. (1982). Cell 31, 543–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128).
    Reichel, P.A., Merrickm W.C., Siekierka, J. and Mathews, M.B. (1985). Nature (London) 313, 196–200.Google Scholar
  129. 129).
    Bhat, R.A. and Thimmappaya, B. (1984). Nucl. Acids Res. 12, 7377–7388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130).
    Siekierka, J., Mariano, T.M., Reichel, P.A. and Mathews, M.B. (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 1959–1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131).
    Jagus, R., Anderson, W.F. and Safer, B. (1981). Prog. Nucl. Acid. Res. Mol. Biol. 25, 127–185.Google Scholar
  132. 132).
    Proud, C.G. (1986). Trends Biochem. Sci. 11, 73–77.Google Scholar
  133. 133).
    O’Malley, R.P., Mariano, T.M., Siekierka, J. and Mathews, B. (1986). Cell 44, 391–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134).
    Kitajewski, J., Schneider, R.J., Safer, B., Munemitsu, S.M., Samuel, C.E., Thissappaya, B. and Shenk, T. (1986). Cell 45, 195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135).
    Bhat, R.A., Domer, P.H. and Thimmappaya, B. (1985). Mol. Cell. Biol. 5, 187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136).
    Schneider, R.J., Weinberger, C. and Shenk, T. (1984). Cell 37, 291–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137).
    Mathews, M.B. (1980). Nature (London) 285, 575–577.Google Scholar
  138. 138).
    Katze, M.G., Chen, Y.T. and Krug, R.M. (1984). Cell 37, 484–489.Google Scholar
  139. 139).
    Nonsense mutations and tRNA suppressors (1979). Celis, D.G. and Smith, J.D., eds., Academic Press, New York, London, San Francisco, pp. 1–340.Google Scholar
  140. 140).
    Transfer RNA: Biological Aspects (1980). Soll, D.G., Abelson, J. and Schimmel, P.R., eds. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 1–569.Google Scholar
  141. 141).
    Celis, J.E. and Piper, P.W. (1981) Trends Biochem. Sci. 6, 177–179.Google Scholar
  142. 142).
    Philipson, L., Andersson, P., Olshevsky, U., Weinberg, R. and Baltimore, D. (1978). Cell 13, 189–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143).
    Shinnick, T.M., Lerner, R.A. and Sutcliffe, J.G. (1981).Nature (London) 293, 543–548.Google Scholar
  144. 144).
    Yoshinaka, Y., Katoh, I., Copeland, T.D. and Oroszlan, S. (1985). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 1618–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145).
    Murphy, E.C.Jr., Wills, N. and Arlinghaus, R.B. (1980). J. Virol. 34, 464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146).
    Pelham, H.R.B. (1978). Nature (London) 272, 469–471.Google Scholar
  147. 147).
    Goelet, P., Lomonossoff, G.P., Butler, P.J.G., Akam, M.E., Gait, M.J. and Kam, J. (1982). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 5818–5822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148).
    Meshi, T., Ishikaza, M., Motoyoshi, F., Semba, K. and Okada, Y. (1986). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 5043–5047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149).
    Ishikawa, M., Meshi, T., Motoyoshi, F., Takamatsu, N. and Okada, Y. (1986) submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  150. 150).
    Strauss, E.G., Rice, C.M. and Strauss, J.H. (1983). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 5271–5275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151).
    Strauss, E.G., Rice, C.M. and Strauss, J.H. (1984) Virology 133, 92–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152).
    Beier, H., Barciszewska, M., Krupp, G., Mitnacht, R. and Gross, H.J. (1984). EMBO J. 3, 351–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153).
    Harbison, S.A., Davies, J.W. and Wilson, T.M.A. (1985). J. Gen. Virol. 66, 2597–2604.Google Scholar
  154. 154).
    Guilley, J., Carrington, J.C., Balazs, E., Jonard, G., Richards, K. and Morris, T.J. (1985). Nucl. Acids. Res. 13, 6663–6677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155).
    Ziegler, V., Richards, K., Guilley, H., Jonard, G. and Putz, C. (1985). J. Gen. Virol. 66, 2079–2087.Google Scholar
  156. 156).
    Bouzoubaa, S., Ziegler, V., Beck, D., Guilley, H., Richards, K. and Jonard, G. (1986). J. Gen. Virol. 67, 1689–1700.Google Scholar
  157. 157).
    Morch, M.D., Drugeon, G. and Benicourt, C. (1982). Virology 119, 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158).
    Pelham, H.R.B. (1979). Virology 97, 256–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159).
    Morris-Krsinich, B.A.M. and Forster, R.L.S. (1983). Virology 128, 176–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160).
    Salerno-Rife, T., Rutgers, T. and Kaesberg, P. (1980). J. Virol. 34, 51–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161).
    Hsu, Y.H. and Brakke, M.K. (1985). Virology 143, 272–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162).
    Weiss, S.R., Hackett, P.B., Oppermann, H., Ullrich, A., Levintow, L. and Bishop, J.M. (1978). Cell 15, 607–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163).
    Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. (1985). Science 230, 1237–1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164).
    Seiki, M., Hattori, S., Hirayama, Y. and Yoshida, M. (1983). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 3618–3622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165).
    Shimotohno, K., Takahashi, Y., Shimizu, N., Gojobori, T., Golde, D.W., Chen, I.S.Y., Miwa, M. and Sugimura, T. (1985). Proc.Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 82, 3101–3105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166).
    Rice, N.T., Stephens, R.M. Burny, A. and Gilden, R.V. (1985). Virology 142, 357–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167).
    Benicourt, C., Pere, J.P., and Haenni, A.L. (1978). FEBS Lett. 86, 268–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168).
    Zagorski, W., Morch, M.D. and Haenni, A.L. (1983). Biochimie 65, 127–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169).
    Benicourt, C. and Haenni A.L. (1978). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 84, 831–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170).
    Morch, M.D. and Benicourt, C. (1980). J. Virol. 34, 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171).
    Candresse, T., Batisti, M., Renaudin, J., Mouches, C. and Bove, J.M. (1986). submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  172. 172).
    Van Tol, R.G.L. and Van Vloten-Doting, L. (1979). Eur. J. Biochem. 93, 461–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173).
    Cornelissen, B.J.C., Brederode, F.T., Moormann, R.J.M. and Bol, J.F. (1983). Nucl. Acids Res. 11, 1253–1265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174).
    Lindhout, P. (1985). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  175. 175).
    Berna, A., Briand, J.P., Stussi-Garaud, C. and Godefroy-Colburn, T. (1986). J. Gen. Virol. 67, 1135–1147.Google Scholar
  176. 176).
    Rueckert, R.R. and Wimmer, E. (1984). J. Virol. 50, 957–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177).
    Shih, D.S., Shih, C.T., Zimmern, D., Rueckert, R.R. and Kaesberg, P. (1979). J. Virol. 30, 472–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178).
    Jackson, R.J. (1986). Virology 149, 114–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179).
    Roth, J.R. (1981). Cell 24, 601–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180).
    Rutgers, A.S. (1977). Ph.D. Thesis, State University of Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  181. 181).
    Joshi, S., Neeleman, L., Pleij, C.W.A., Haenni, A.L., Chapeville, F., Bosch, L., and Van Vloten-Doting, L. (1984). Virology 139, 231–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182).
    Barker, R.F., Jarvis, N.P., Thompson, D.V., Loesch-Fries, L.S. and Hall, T.C. (1983). Nucl. Acids. Res. 11, 2881–2891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183).
    Bienz, M. and Kubli, E. (1981). Nature (London) 294, 188–190.Google Scholar
  184. 184).
    Beier, H., Barciszewska, M. and Sickinger, H.D. (1984). EMBO J. 3, 1091–1096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185).
    Nishimura, S. (1979). in Transfer RNA: Structure, Properties and Recognition, P. Schimmel, D. Soll and J.N. Abelson, eds. Cold Spring Harbor, pp. 59–79.Google Scholar
  186. 186).
    Crick, F.H.C. (1966). J. Mol. Biol. 19, 548–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187).
    Lagerkwist, U. (1978). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 1759–1762.Google Scholar
  188. 188).
    Topal, M.D. and Fresco, J.R. (1976) Nature (London) 263, 289–293.Google Scholar
  189. 189).
    Yokohama, S., Miyazawa, T., Iitaka, Y., Yamaizumi, Z., Kasai, K. and Nishimura, S. (1979). Nature (London) 282, 107–109.Google Scholar
  190. 190).
    Hirsh, D. (1971). J. Mol. Biol. 58, 439–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191).
    Chavancy, G., Chevallier, A., Fournier, A. and Garel, J.P. (1979). Biochimie 61, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192).
    Ikemura, T. (1981). J. Mol. Biol. 151, 389–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193).
    Ikemura, T. (1982). J. Mol. Biol. 158, 573–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194).
    Gouy, M. and Gautier, C. (1982). Nucl. Acids Res. 10, 7055–7074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195).
    Varenne, S., Buc, J., Lloubes, R. and Lazdunski, C. (1984). J. Mol. Biol. 180, 549–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196).
    Goldman, E. (1982). J. Mol. Biol. 158, 619–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197).
    Bossi, L. and Roth, J.R. (1980). Nature (London) 286, 123–126.Google Scholar
  198. 198).
    Miller, J.H. and Albertini, A.M. (1983). J. Mol. Biol. 164, 59–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199).
    Bossi, L. (1983). J. Mol. Biol. 164, 73–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200).
    Post-translational modifications, Parts A and B (1980), Methods in Enzymology, 106 and 107, Wold, F. and Moldave, K., eds., Academic Press, Orlando, USA.Google Scholar
  201. 201).
    Garten, W., Bosch, F.X., Under, D., Rott, R. and Klenk, H.D. (1981). Virology 115, 361–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202).
    Gething, M.J., White, J.M. and Waterfield, M.D. (1978). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 2737–2740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203).
    Bhatti, A.R. and Weber, J. (1979). J. Biol. Chem. 254, 12265–12268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204).
    Putnak, J.R. and Phillips, B.A. (1981). Microb. Reviews 45, 287–315.Google Scholar
  205. 205).
    Hogle, J.M., Chow, M. and Filman, D.J. (1985). Science 229, 1358–1365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206).
    Pallansch, M.A., Kew, O.M., Semler, B.L., Omiliankowski, D.R., Anderson, C.W., Wimmer, E and Rueckert, R.R. (1984). J. Virol. 49, 873–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207).
    Nicklin, M.H.J., Toyoda, H., Murray, M.G. and Wimmer, E. (1986). Biotechnology 43, 33–42.Google Scholar
  208. 208).
    Schwartz, D.E., Tizard, R. and Gilbert, W. (1983). Cell 32, 853–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209).
    Moelling, K., Scott, A., Dittmar, K.E.J., and Owada, M. (1980). J. Virol. 33, 680–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210).
    Takkinen, K. (1986). Nucl. Acids Res. 14, 5667–5682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211).
    Garoff, H., Frischaud, A.M., Simons, K., Lehrach, H and Delius, H. (1980). Nature (London) 288, 236–241.Google Scholar
  212. 212).
    Garoff, H., Frischaud, A.M., Simons, K., Lehrach, H. and Delius, H. (1980). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6376–6380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213).
    Rice, C.M., Lenches, E.M., Eddy, S.R., Shin, S.J., Sheets, R.L. and Strauss, J.H. (1985). Science 229, 726–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214).
    Franssen, H., Moerman, M., Rezelman, G. and Goldbach, R. (1984). J. Virol. 50, 183–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215).
    Verver, J., Goldbach, R., Garcia, J.A. and Vos, P. (1986) submitted for pubblication.Google Scholar
  216. 216).
    Morch, M.D., Zagorski, W. and Haenni, A.L. (1982). Eur. J. Biochem. 127, 259–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217).
    Forster, R.S.L. and Morris-Krsinich, B.A.M. (1985). Virology 144, 516–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218).
    Morris-Krsinich, B.A.M. and Hull, R. (1981). Virology 114, 98–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219).
    Wellink, J., Rezelman, G., Goldbach, R. and Beyreuther, K. (1986). J. Virol. 59, 50–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220).
    Franssen, H., Leunissen, J., Goldbach, R., Lomonossoff, G.P. and Zimmern, D. (1984). EMBO J. 3, 855–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221).
    Argos, P., Kramer, G., Nicklin, M.J.H. and Wimmer, E. (1984). Nucl. Acids Res. 12, 7251–7260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222).
    Goldbach, R. and Rezelman, G. (1983). J. Virol. 46, 614–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223).
    Flanegan, J.B. and Baltimore, D. (1977). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, 3677–3680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224).
    Dorssers, L., Van der Krol, S., Van der Meer, J., Van Kammen, A. and Zabel, P. (1984). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 1951–1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225).
    Palmenberg, A.C., Pallansch, M.A. and Rueckert, R.R. (1979). J. Virol. 32, 770–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226).
    Hanecak, R., Semler, B.L., Ariga, H., Anderson, C.W.A. and Wimmer, E. (1984). Cell 37, 1063–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227).
    Klump, W., Marquart, O. and Hofscneider, P.H. (1984). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 3351–3355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228).
    Franssen, H., Goldbach, R. and Van Kammen, A. (1984). Virus Research 1, 39–49.Google Scholar
  229. 229).
    Toyoda, H., Nicklin, M.H.J., Murray, M.G., Anderson, C.W., Dunn, J.J., Studier, F.W. and Wimmer, E. (1986). Cell 45, 761–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230).
    Pelham, H.R.B. (1978). Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 457–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231).
    Pelham, H.R.B. (1979). Virology 96, 463–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232).
    Palmenberg, A.C. and Rueckert, R.R. (1982). J. Virol. 41, 244–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233).
    Goldbach, R.W. (1986). Ann. Rev. Pytopathology 24 in press.Google Scholar
  234. 234).
    Mouches, C., Candresse, T. and Bove, J.M. (1984). Virology 134, 78–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235).
    McLean, L., Mathews, T.J., and Rueckert, R.R. (1976). J. Virol. 19, 903–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236).
    Rossman, M.G., Arnold, E., Erickson, J.W., Frankenberger, E.A., Griffith, J.P., Hecht, H.J., Johnson, J.E., Kramer, G., Luo, M., Mosser, A.G., Rueckert, R.R., Sherry, B. and Vriend, G. (1985). Nature (London) 317, 145–153.Google Scholar
  237. 237).
    Smith, T.J., Kremer, M.J., Luo, M., Vriend, G., Arnold, E., Kramer, G., Rossmann, M.G., McKinlay, M.A., Dianim G.D. and Otto, M.J. (1986). Science 233, 1286–1293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238).
    Garoff, H., Simons, K. and Dobberstein, B. (1978). J. Mol. Biol. 124, 587–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239).
    Kaariainen, L., Hashimoto, K., Kalkinnen, N., Keranen, S., Lehtovaara, P., Ranki, M., Saraste, J., Sawicki, D., Sawicki, S., Ulmanen, I. and Vaananen, P. (1981) see ref. 3, pp. 189–203.Google Scholar
  240. 240).
    Welch, W.J. and Sefton, B.M. (1980) J. Virol. 33, 230–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241).
    Vogt, V.M., Bruckenstein, D.A. and Bell, A.P. (1982). J. Virol. 44, 725–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242).
    Walsh, C.T. (1984). Ann. Rev. Biochem. 53, 493–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243).
    Sanderson, J.L., Bruening, G. and Rüssel, M.L. (1985). in Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cell Biology, New Series vol. 22. Rey, J.L. and Kosuge, T., eds., Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, 401–412.Google Scholar
  244. 244).
    Perez Bercoff, R., & Gander, M. (1978), FEBS Letters, 96, 306–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245).
    Perez Bercoff, R., & Kaempfer, R. (1982), J. Virol., 41, 30–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246).
    Degener, A. M., Pagnotti, P., Facchini, J., & Perez Bercoff, R. (1983), J.Virol. 45, 889–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247).
    Perez Bercoff, R. (1982). In: Protein Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes, R. Perez Bercoff, ed. Plenum Press, New York & London, pp.245–252Google Scholar
  248. 248).
    Kaempfer, R. (1982). In: Protein Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes, R. Perez Bercoff, ed. Plenum Press, New York & London, pp. 441–457Google Scholar
  249. 249).
    Celma, M.L., & Ehrenfeld, E. (1975), J.Mol. Biol. 98, 761–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250).
    Ehrenfeld, E. (1979). In: The Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses, R. Perez Bercoff, ed. Plenum Press, New York & London, pp.223–238Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Dominique Morch
    • 1
  • Rosaura P. C. Valle
    • 1
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut Jacques MonodParis Cedex 05France

Personalised recommendations