Advertisement

The Molecular Biology of Hepatitis B Virus

  • David A. Shafritz
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 136)

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (originally termed serum hepatitis) has been known to exist for more than four decades and the virus particle was physically demonstrated by electron microscopy more than 15 years ago; yet until recently, progress has been very slow in understanding the nature and biology of this virus. The major limitation has been the lack of cell culture systems to effectively propagate hepatitis B virus (HBV) and study its replication cycle. However, with the advent of recombinant DNA methods in the 1970’s, the cloning of the complete HBV genome, the information derived from sequencing this genome, and use of cloned HBV DNA as a molecular probe, significant advances have been made during the past six years. This review will deal with our current understanding of the HBV genome, the nature of its gene products and the virus replication mechanism, all which illustrate unique features. Finally, information will be presented concerning our present understanding of the possible role of HBV in hepatic oncogenesis for which a clear association has been shown by epidemiologic studies.

Keywords

Ground Squirrel Primary Liver Cancer Dane Particle Hepadna Virus Nonpermissive Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    Smuzness W. 1978. Prog Med Virol 24, 40–69.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Hoofnagle, JH, Alter HJ. In: Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH, eds., Grime et Stratton, 1984., pp. 97–113.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    Stevens CE, Beasley RP, Tsui J and Lee WC. 1975. N Engl J Med 292, 771–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Anderson, MG, Murray-Lyon IM. 1985. Gut 26, 848–860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Redeker Ag. 1975. Amer J Med Sci 270, 9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Basley RP and Hwang L-Y. 1984. In: Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cancer, eds., Vyas, GN, Dienstag JL and Hoofnagle JH. New York: Grune and Stratton, pp. 209–224.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Obata K, Hatashi N, Motoike Y et al., 1980. Int J Cancer 25, 741–747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Blumberg B, London WT. 1982. Current Probi Cancer 6, 21–23.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    Robinson WS. 1980. Ann NY Acad Sci 354, 371–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Lie-Injo LE, Balasegaram M, Lopez CG, Herrera AR. 1983. DNA 2, 301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Elfassi E, Romet-Lemone J-L, Essex M, Francis-McLane M, Haseltine W. 1984. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81, 3526–3568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 11).
    Chong-Jin O, Jeak-ling D. 1984. Lancet ii, s.Google Scholar
  13. 12).
    Pontisso P, Poon MC, Tiollais P, Brechot C. 1984. Brit Med J 288, 1563–1566.Google Scholar
  14. 13).
    Gu J-R, Chen Y-c, Jiang H-Q, Zhang Y-L, Wu S-M, Jiang W-L, Jian J. 1985. J Med Virol 17, 73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 14).
    Korba BE, Wells F, Tennant BC, Yoakum GH, Purcell RH, Gerin JL. 1986. J Virol 58, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 15).
    Yoffe B, Noonan A, Melnick JL, Hollinger FB. 1986. J. Infec Dis 153, 471–477.Google Scholar
  17. 16).
    Lieberman HM, Tung WW, Shafritz DA. 1987. J Med Virol 21, in press.Google Scholar
  18. 17).
    Halpern MS, England JM, Deery DT, Petcu DJ, Mason WS, Molnar-Kimber KL. 1983. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 4865–4869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18).
    Sureau C, Romet-Lemonne J-L, Mullins JI, Essex M. 1986. Cell 46, in press.Google Scholar
  20. 19).
    Tiollais P, Pourcel C, DeJean A. 1985. Nature (London) 317, 489–495.Google Scholar
  21. 20).
    Ruiz-Opazo N, Chakraborty PR, Shafritz DA. 1982. Cell 29, 129–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21).
    Mason WS, Aldrich C, Summers J, Taylor JM. 1982. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 49, 3997–4001.Google Scholar
  23. 22).
    Rogler CE, Summers J. 1982. J Virol 44, 852–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23).
    Weiser W, Ganem D, Seeger C, Varmus HE. 1983. J Virol 48, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24).
    Sninsky J J, Siddiqui A, Robinson WS, et al., 1979. Nature (London) 279, 236–348.Google Scholar
  26. 25).
    Siddiqui A, Sattler F, Robinson WS. 1979. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76, 4664–4668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 26).
    Tiollais P, Charnay P, Vyas GN. 1981. Science 213, 406–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27).
    Marion PL, Oshiro LS, Regnery DC, et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77, 2941–2945.Google Scholar
  29. 28).
    Gerlich WH, Feitelson MA, Marion PL, et al., 1980. J. Virol 36, 787–795.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 29).
    Werner BG, Smolec JM, Snyder R, et al., 1979. J Virol 32, 314–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 30).
    Galibert F, Chen TN, Mandart E. 1982. J Virol 41, 51–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31).
    Snyder RL, Summers J. 1980. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers Essex M Todaro G, zur Hausen M (Eds):, 7, Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Cell Proliferation, pp. 447–457.Google Scholar
  33. 32).
    Summers J. 1981. Hepatology 1, 91–98.Google Scholar
  34. 33).
    Ornata M, Uchiumi K, Ito Y, et al. 1983. Gastroenterology 85, 260–267.Google Scholar
  35. 34).
    Marion PL, Van Davelaar MJ, Knight SS, Salazar FH, Garcia G, Popper H, Robinson WS. 1986. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 4543–4546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 35).
    Cattaneo R, Will H, Schaller H. 1983. Nature (London) 305, 336–338.Google Scholar
  37. 36).
    Cattaneo R, Will H, Schaller H. 1984 EMBO J 3, 2191–2196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 37).
    Pourcel C, et al., 1982. J Virol 32, 100–105.Google Scholar
  39. 38).
    Gough N. 1983. J Molec Biol 165, 683–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39).
    Peterson DI, Nath N, Gavilanes F. 1982. J Biol Chem 257, 10414–10420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40).
    Neurath AR, Kent SBH, Strick N. 1984. Science 224, 392–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 41).
    Neurath AR, Kent SBH, Strick N, Taylor P, Stevens CE. 1985. Nature (London) 315, 154–156.Google Scholar
  43. 42).
    Machida A, et al., 1984. Gastroent 86, 910–918.Google Scholar
  44. 43).
    Eble BE, Lingappa VR, Ganem D. 1986. Molec and Cell Biol 6, 1454–1463.Google Scholar
  45. 44).
    Eble BE, Lingappa VR, Ganem D. 1986. Meeting on Molecular Biology of Hepatitis B Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Abstract, p. 18.Google Scholar
  46. 45).
    Summers J, Tiollais P. (organizers) 1986. Meeting on Molecular Biology of Hepatitis B Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Auga. 18–31, 1986.Google Scholar
  47. 46).
    Albin C, Robinson WS. 1980. J Virol 34, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47).
    Petit MA, Pillot J. 1985. J Virol 53, 543–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 48).
    Takahashi K, Machida A, Funatsu G, et al., 1983. J. Immunol 130, 2903–2907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49).
    Ou J-H, Laub O, Rutter WJ. 1986. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 1578–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50).
    Bruss V, Gerlich W. 1986. Meeting on Molecular Biology of Hepatitis Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Abstract, p. 14.Google Scholar
  52. 51).
    Moriarty AM, Alexander H, Lerner RA. 1985. Science 227, 429–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52).
    Myers ML, Trepo LV, Nath N, Sninsky JJ. 1986. J Virol 37, 103–109.Google Scholar
  54. 53).
    Gerlich W, Robinson WS. 1980. Cell 21, 801–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54).
    Will H, Salfeld J, Pfaff E, Manso C, Thielman L, Schaller H. 1986. Science 231, 594–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55).
    Pourcel C, Louise A, Gervais M, Chenciner N, Dubois MF, Tiollais P. 1982. J Virol 42, 100–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56).
    Chakraborty PR, Ruiz-Opazo N, Shafritz DA. 1981. Virology 111, 647–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57).
    Rall LB, Standring DN, Laub O, Rutter W. 1983. Molec Cell Biol 3, 1766–1773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58).
    Shaul Y, Rutter WJ, Laub O. 1985. EMBO J 4, 427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59).
    Tur-Kaspa R, Burk RD, Shaul Y, Shafritz DA. 1986. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 1627–1631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60).
    Hynes N, Van Oogen AJJ, Kennedy N, Hernlich P, Ponta H, Groner B. 1983. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 3637–3641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61).
    Krauter P, Westphal HM, Beato M. 1984. Nature (London) 308, 513–519.Google Scholar
  63. 62).
    Moore DD, Marka AR, Buckley DI, Kaplan AG, Payvar F, Goodman HM. 1985. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82, 699–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63).
    Jameel S, Siddique A. 1986. Molec Cell Biol 6, 710–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64).
    Foster J, Stafford J, Queen C. 1985. Nature (London) 315, 423–425.Google Scholar
  66. 65).
    Edlund T, Walker MD, Barr PJ, Rutter WJ. 1985. Science 230, 912–914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66).
    Carthen RW, Chodosh LA, Sharp PA. 1985. Cell 43, 439–448.Google Scholar
  68. 67).
    Summers J, Mason WS. 1982. Cell 29, 403–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68).
    Miller RH, Tran C-T, Robinson WS. 1984. Virology 139, 53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69).
    Lien J-M, Aldrich EC, Mason WS. 1986. J Virol 57, 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70).
    Rosen CA, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA. 1985. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82, 6502–6507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71).
    Mason WS, Taylor JM, Hull R. 1986. Advances in Virus Research, 32, in press.Google Scholar
  73. 72).
    Miller RH, Robinson WS. 1986. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 2531–2525, in press.Google Scholar
  74. 73).
    Berk AJ, Lee F, Harrison T, Williams J, Sharp PA. 1979. Cell 17, 935–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74).
    Nevins JR. 1981. Cell 26, 213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75).
    Nevins JR. 1982. Cell 29, 913–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76).
    Treisman R, Green R, Maniatis R. 1983. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 7428–7432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77).
    Tanaka K, Isselbacher KJ, Khoury G, Jay G. 1985. Science 228, 26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78).
    Smedile A, Dentico P, Zanetti A, Sagnelli E, Nordenfeit E, Actis GC, Rizzetto M. 1981. Gastroent 82, 992–997.Google Scholar
  80. 79).
    Harrison TJ, Tsiquaye KN, Zuckerman AJ. 1983. J Virol Meth 6, 295–302.Google Scholar
  81. 80).
    Bonino F, Hoyer B, Nelson J, et al. 1981. Hepatology 1, 386–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81).
    Brechot C, Hadchouel M, Scotto J, et al., 1981. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78, 3906–3910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82).
    Lieberman HM, LaBrecque DR, Kew ML, Hadziyannis SJ, Shafritz DA. 1983. Hepatology 3, 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83).
    Hadziyannis SJ, Lieberman HM, Karvountzis GG, Shafritz DA. 1983. Hepatology 3, 656–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84).
    Yokosuka O, Ornata M, Imazechi F, Okuda K. 1985. Gastroent 89, 610–616.Google Scholar
  86. 85).
    Shafritz DA, Lieberman HM, Isselbacher KJ, Wands JR. 1982. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79, 5675–5679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86).
    Shafritz DA, Hadziyannis SJ. 1984. In: Advances in Hepatitis Research, F.V. Chisari ed., Masson Press, New York, pp. 80–90.Google Scholar
  88. 87).
    Kam A, Rall LB, Smuckler EA, et al., 1982. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79, 7522–7526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88).
    Shafritz DA, Shouval D, Sherman HI, et al., 1981. N Engl J Med 305, 1067–1073.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89).
    Koshy R, Maupas P, Muller R, Hofscneider PH. 1981. J Gen Virol 57, 95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90).
    Raimondo G, Burk RD, Lieberman HM, Muschel J, Kew MC, Shafritz DA. 1986. Meeting on Molecular Biology of Hepatitis B Viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Abstract, p. 90.Google Scholar
  92. 91).
    Shafritz DA, Kew MC. 1981. Hepatology 1, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92).
    Koch S, von Loringhoven AF, Hofschneider PH, Koshy R. 1984. EMBO J 3, 2185–2189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93).
    Ziemer M, Garcia P, Shaul Y, Rutter. 1985. J Virol 53, 885–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94).
    Hino O, Show TB, Rogler CE. 1986. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, in press.Google Scholar
  96. 95).
    Louise A, Scotto J, Tiollais P. 1982. Hepatology 2, 27s-35s.Google Scholar
  97. 96).
    Chen DS, Hayes BH, Nelson J, Purcell RH, Gerin JL. 1983. Hepatology 2, 42s-45s.Google Scholar
  98. 97).
    Dejean A, Brechot C, Tiollais P, Wain-Hobson S. 1983. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 2505–2509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98).
    Koike K, Kobayashi M., Mizusawa H, Yoshida E, Yaginuma K, Taira M. 1983. Nucl Acid Res 11, 5391–5402.Google Scholar
  100. 99).
    Koshy R, Koch S, von Loringhoven AF, Kahmann R, Murray K, Hofschneider PH. 1983. Cell 34, 215–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100).
    Rogler CE, Sherman M, Su CY, Shafritz DA, Shows T, Henderson A, Kew MC. 1985. Science 230, 329–332.Google Scholar
  102. 101).
    Rogler CE, Summers J. 1982. J Virol 44, 852–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102).
    Marion PL, Robinson WS, Rogler CE, Topper D, Summers J. 1982. J Cell Biochem, Suppl 6, p203.Google Scholar
  104. 103).
    Ogston CW, Jonak GJ, Rogler CE, Astrin SM, Summers J. 1982. Cell 29, 385–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104).
    Land H, Parada LF, Weinberg RA. 1984. Science 222, 771–778.Google Scholar
  106. 105).
    Bishop JM. 1985. Cell 42, 23–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106).
    Hayward WS, Neel BG, Astrin SM. 1981. Nature (London) 290, 475–480.Google Scholar
  108. 107).
    Payne GS, Bishop JM, Varmus HE. 1982. Nature (London) 295, 209–212.Google Scholar
  109. 108).
    Mizusawa H, Mananori T, Yaginuma K, Kobayashi M, Yoshida E, Koike K. 1985. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82, 208–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109).
    Dejean A, Bougueleret L, Grzeschik K-H, Tiollais P. 1986. Nature (London) 322, 70–72.Google Scholar
  111. 110).
    Weinberger C, Hallenberg SM, Rosenfeld MG, Evans RM. 1985. Nature (London) 318, 670–672.Google Scholar
  112. 111).
    Varmus H, Summers J. (organizers). 1985. Meeting on Hepatitis B viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, abstracts. May 2–5, 1985.Google Scholar
  113. 112).
    Koufos A, Hansen MF, Lampkin BC, Workman ML, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Covenee WK. 1984. Nature (London) 309, 170–172.Google Scholar
  114. 113).
    Orkin SH, Goldman DS, Sallan SE. 1984. Nature (London) 309, 172–174.Google Scholar
  115. 114).
    Koufos A, Hansen MF, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Lampkin BC, Cavenee WK. 1985. Nature (London) 316, 330–334.Google Scholar
  116. 115).
    Klein G. 1981. Nature (London) 294, 313–318.Google Scholar
  117. 116).
    Pitot HC. 1977. Am J Pathol 89, 401–412.Google Scholar
  118. 117).
    Geissler E, Theile M. 1983. Human Genetics 63, 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Shafritz
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and Cell Biology and the Marion Bessin Liver Research CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations