The Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses

  • Brian W. J. Mahy
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 136)

Abstract

The family Coronaviridae consists of eleven viruses which infect vertebrates and cause a range of diseases mostly affecting the respiratory or the gastrointestinal tract (1). The name Coronavirus was coined by Tyrrel et al. (2) on the basis of the characteristic corona of widely spaced bulbous surface projections, 12–24 nm long, seen in electron micrographs of these viruses (Figure 1). More recently, it has become clear that members of the Coronaviridae share a number of molecular biological features which constitute a unique replication strategy and set these viruses apart from other virus groups. These features may underlie the fascinating biological properties of certain murine coronaviruses which provide one of the best available models for human demyelinating neurological diseases (3).

Keywords

Hepatitis Recombination Influenza Oligomer Polypeptide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1).
    Siddell, S., Wege, H. and ter Meulen, V. (1983). J. gen. Virol. 64, 761–776.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2).
    Tyrrell, D.A.J., Almeida, J.D., Berry, D.M., Cunningham, C.H., Hamre, D., Hofstad, M.S., Mallucci, L. and Mcintosh, K. (1968). Nature (London) 220, 650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3).
    Wege, H., Siddell, S. and ter Meulen, V. (1982). Current Topics in Microbiol. Immunol. 99, 165–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4).
    Knobler, R.L., Tunison, L.A., Lampert, P.W. and Oldstone, M.B.A. (1982). Amer. J. Path. 109, 157–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5).
    Wege, H., Watanabe, R. and ter Meulen, V. (1984). J. Neuroimmunol. 6, 325–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Knobler, R.L., Lampert, P.W. and Oldstone, M.B.A. (1982). Nature (London) 298, 279–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7).
    Fleming, J.O., Trousdale, M.D., El-Zaatari, F.A.K., Stohlman, S.A. and Weiner, L.P. (1986). J. Virol. 58, 869–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8).
    Burks, J.S., Devald, B.L., Jankovsky, L.D. and Gerdes, J.C. (1980). Science 209, 933–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9).
    Leinikki, P.D., Holmes, K.V., Shekarchi, I., Iivanainen, M., Madden, D. and Sever, J.L. (1981). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 142, 323–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Mahy, B.W.J. (1981). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 142, 261–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11).
    Mahy, B.W.J. (1983). In: Viruses and Demyelinating Diseases, ed. C.A. Mims, Academic Press, pp. 81–87.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    Larner, A.J. (1986). J. Roy. Soc. Med. 79, 412–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13).
    Hofstad, M.S. (1978). In: Diseases of Poultry, ed. M.S. Hofstad, B.W. Calnek, C.F. Helmboldt, W.M. Reid and H.W. Yorke. Iowa State University Press, Ames, pp. 487–504.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    Alexander, D.J., Gough, R.E. and Pattison, M. (1978). Res. Vet. Sci. 24, 228–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15).
    Jacobse-Geels, H.E., Daha, M.R. and Horzinek, M.C. (1982). Amer. J. Vet. Res. 43, 666–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16).
    Baybutt, H.M., Wege, H., Carter, M.J. and ter Meulen, V. (1984). J. gen. Virol. 65, 915–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17).
    Brown, T.D.K., Boursnell, M.E.G., Binns, M.M. and Tomley, F.M. (1986) In: Molecular Organisation of Positive Strand Viruses, Rowlands, D.J., Mahy, B.W.J., and Mayo, M.A. eds, Academic Press (in press).Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    Jacobs, L., van der Zeijst, B.A.M., Horzinek, M.C. (1986). J. Virol. 57, 1010–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19).
    Lai, M.M.C. and Stohlman, S.A. (1981). J. Virol. 38, 661–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20).
    Cavanagh, D. (1983). J. gen. Virol. 64, 1187–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21).
    King, B., Potts, B.J. and Briaan, D.A. (1985). Virus Res. 2, 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22).
    Hogue, B.G. and Brian, D.A. (1986). Virus Res. 5, 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23).
    Armstrong, J., Smeekens, S. and Rottier, P. (1983). Nucleic Acid Res. 11, 883–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24).
    Skinner, M.A.S. and Siddell, S.G. (1983). Nucleic Acid Res. 11, 5045–5054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25).
    Siddell, S.G., Barthel, A. and ter Meulen, V. (1981). J. gen. Virol. 52, 235–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26).
    Boursnell, M.E.G., Binns, M.M., Foulds, I.J. and Brown, T.D.K. (1985). J. gen. Virol. 66, 573–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27).
    Niemann, H. and Klenk, H.D. (1981). J. mol. Biol. 153, 993–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28).
    Rottier, P., Brandenburg, D., Armstrong, J., van der Zeijst, B. and Warren, G. (1984). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 1421–1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29).
    Rottier, P.J.M., Welling, G.W., Welling-Webster, S., Niesters, H.G.M., Lenstra, J.A. and van der Zeijst, B.A.M. (1986). Biochemistry 25, 1335–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29a).
    Pfleiderer, M., Skinner, M.A. and Siddell, S.G. (1986). Nucleic Acids Res., in press.Google Scholar
  31. 30).
    Stern, D.F. and Sefton, B.M. (1982). J. Virol. 44, 804–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 31).
    Boursnell, M.E.G., Brown, T.D.K. and Binns, M.M. (1984). Virus Res. 1, 303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32).
    Rottier, P., Armstrong, J. and Meyer, D.I. (1985). J. biol. Chem. 260, 4648–4652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 33).
    Cavanagh, D., Davis, P.J. and Pappin, D.J.C. (1986). Virus Res. 4, 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34).
    Davies, H.A. and MacNaughton, M.R. (1979). Arch. Virol. 59, 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35).
    Cavanagh, D. (1983). J. gen. Virol. 64, 2577–2583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36).
    Collins, A.R., Knobler, R.L., Powell, H. and Buchmeier, M.J. (1982). Virology 119, 358–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37).
    Mockett, A.P.A., Cavanagh, D. and Brown, T.D.K. (1984). J. gen. Virol. 65, 2281–2286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38).
    Binns, M.M., Boursnell, M.E.G., Cavanagh, D., Pappin, D.J.C. and Brown, T.D.K. (1985). J. gen. Virol. 66, 719–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39).
    Stern, D.F. and Sefton, B.M. (1982). J. Virol. 44, 794–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 40).
    Cavanagh, D. and Davis, P.J. (1986). J. gen. Virol. 67, 1443–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41).
    Cavanagh, D., Davis, P.J., Pappin, D.J.C., Binns, M.M., Boursnell, M.E.G. and Brown, T.D.K. (1986). Virus Res. 4, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42).
    Talbot, P.J. and Buchmeier, M.J. (1985). Virus Res. 2, 317–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43).
    Niesters, H.G.M., Lenstra, J.A., Spaan, W.J.M., Zijderveld, A.J., Bleumink-Pluym, N.M.C., Hong, F., van Scharrenburg, G.J.M., Horzinek, M.C. and van der Zeijst, B.A.M. (1986). Virus Res. 5, 253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44).
    Siddell, S.G. (1982). J. gen. Virol. 62, 259–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45).
    Siddell, S.G., Wege, H. and ter Meulen, V. (1982). Curr. Topics Microbiol. Immunol. 99, 131–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46).
    Sturman, L.S. and Holmes, K.V. (1983). Advances in Virus Res. 28, 35–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47).
    Alonso-Caplen, F.V., Matsuoka, Y., Wilcox, G. and Compans, R.W. (1984). Virus Res. 1, 153–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48).
    Bond, C.W., Anderson, K. and Leibowitz, J.L. (1984). Arch. Virol. 80, 333–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49).
    Boursnell, M.E.G. and Brown, T.D.K. (1984). Gene 29, 87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50).
    Boursnell, M.E.G., Binns, M.M. and Brown, T.D.K. (1985). J. gen. Virol. 66, 2253–2258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51).
    Skinner, M.A., Ebner, D. and Siddel, S.G. (1985). J. gen. Virol. 66, 581–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52).
    Skinner, M.A. and Siddell, S.G. (1985). J. gen. Virol. 66, 593–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53).
    Wilhelmsen, K.C., Leibowitz, J.Z., Bond, C.W. and Robb, J.A. (1981). Virology 110, 225–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54).
    Mahy, B.W.J., Siddell, S.G., Wege, H. and ter Meulen, V. (1983). J. gen. Virol. 64, 103–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55).
    Lai, M.M.C., Patton, C.D. and Stohlman, S.A. (1982). J. Virol. 44, 487–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56).
    Brayton, P.R., Stohlman, S.A. and Lai, M.M.C (1984). Virology 133, 197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57).
    Sawicki, S.G. and Sawicki, D.L. (1986). J. Virol. 57, 328–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58).
    Stern, D.F. and Kennedy, S.I.T. (1980). J. Virol. 34, 665–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 59).
    Stern, D.F. and Kennedy, S.I.T. (1980). J. Virol. 36, 440–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 60).
    Lai, M.M.C., Brayton, P.R., Armen, R.C., Patton, C.D., Pugh, C. and Stohlman, S.A. (1981). J. Virol. 39, 823–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61).
    Leibowitz, J.L., Wilhelmsen, K.C and Bond, C.W. (1981). Virology 114, 39–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62).
    Spaan, W.J.M., Rottier, P.J.M., Horzinek, M.C and van der Zeijst, B.A.M. (1982). J. Virol. 42, 432–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63).
    Siddell, S.G. (1983). J. gen. Virol. 64, 113–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64).
    Stern, D.F. and Sefton, B.M. (1984). J. Virol. 50, 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65).
    Leibowitz, J.L., Weiss, S.R., Paavola, E. and Bond, C.W. (1982). J. Virol. 43, 905–913.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66).
    Brayton, P.R., Lai, M.M.C., Patton, C.D. and Stohlman, S.A. (1982). J. Virol. 42, 847–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67).
    Jacobs, L., Spaan, W.J.M., Horzinek, M.C. and van der Zeijst, B.A.M. (1981). J. Virol. 39, 401–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68).
    Stern, D.F. and Sefton, B.M. (1982). J. Virol. 42, 755–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69).
    Lai, M.M.C., Patton, C.D., Baric, R.S. and Stohlman, S.A. (1983). J. Virol. 46, 1027–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70).
    Lai, M.M.C., Baric, R.S., Brayton, P.R. and Stohlman, S.A. (1984). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 3626–3630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71).
    Brown, T.D.K., Boursnell, M.E.G. and Binns, M.M. (1984). J. gen. Virol. 65, 1437–1442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72).
    Brown, T.D.K., Boursnell, M.E.G., Binns, M.M. and Tomley, F.M. (1986). J. gen. Virol. 67, 221–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73).
    Spaan, W., Delius, H., Skinner, M., Armstrong, J., Rottier, P., Smeekens, S., van der Zeijst, B. and Siddell, S.G. (1983). EMBO J. 2, 1839–1844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74).
    Brown, T.D.K. and Boursnell, M.E.G. (1984). Virus Res. 1, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75).
    Baric, R.S., Stohlman, S.A., Razavi, M.K. and Lai, M.M.C. (1985). Virus Res. 3, 19–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76).
    Makino, S., Stohlman, S.A. and Lai, M.M.C. (1986). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83, 4204–4208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77).
    Buldzilowicz, C.J., Wilczynski, S.P. and Weiss, S.R. (1985). J. Virol. 53, 834–840.Google Scholar
  79. 78).
    Mahy, B.W.J. (1984). Adv. Exptl. biol. Med. 173, 1–10.Google Scholar
  80. 79).
    Lai, M.M.C., Baric, R.S., Makino, S., Keck, J.G., Egbert, J., Leibowitz, J.L. and Stohlman, S.A. (1985). J. Virol. 56, 449–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80).
    Makino, S., Keck, J.G., Stohlman, S.A. and Lai, M.M.C (1986). J. Virol. 57, 729–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81).
    Lai, M.M.C., Makino, S., Baric, R.S., Soe, L., Shieh, C.K., Keck, J.G. and Stohlman, S.A. (1986). In: Positive strand RNA Viruses, UCLA Symposium on Molecular and Cellular Biology. M.A. Brinton and R.R. Rueckert, eds. in press.Google Scholar
  83. 82).
    King, A.M.Q., McCahon, D., Saunders, K., Newman, J.W.I. and Slade, W.R. (1985). Virus Res. 3, 373–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83).
    King, A.M.Q., Ortlepp, S.A., Newman, J. and McCahon, D. (1986). In: Molecular Organisation of Positive Strand Viruses, Rowlands, D.J., Mahy, B.W.J., Mayo, M.A., ed. Academic Press, in press.Google Scholar
  85. 84).
    Cech, T.R. (1983). Cell 34, 713–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85).
    Dubois-Dalcq, M.E., Doller, E.W., Haspel, M.V. and Holmes, K.V. (1982). Virology 119, 317–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86).
    Sturman, L.S., Holmes, K.V. and Behnke, J. (1980). J. Virol. 33, 449–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87).
    Holmes, K.V. (1985). In ‘Virology’, edited B.N. Fields et al. Raven Press, 1331–1343.Google Scholar
  89. 88).
    Holmes, K.V., Doller, E.W. and Behnke, J.N. (1981). Adv. Expt. Med. Biol. 142, 133–142.Google Scholar
  90. 89).
    Niemann, H., Boschek, B., Evans, D., Rosing, M., Tamura, I. and Klenk, H.D. (1982). EMBO J. 1, 1499–1504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90).
    Tartakoff, A.M. (1983). Cell 32, 1026–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91).
    Siddell, S. (1986). In: Molecular Organization of Positive Strand Viruses Rowlands, D.J., Mahy, B.W.J. and Mayo, M.A., eds., Academic Press, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian W. J. Mahy
    • 1
  1. 1.The Animal Virus Research InstitutePirbrightUK

Personalised recommendations