Growth Factors in the Basal Ganglia
The body of literature on growth factor effects in the brain and periphery is rapidly expanding. Until recently, most growth factor studies have pertained to the periphery and peripheral nervous system (see Golde et al, 1980; Johnson et al, 1986; Bradshaw & Rubin, 1980 for review). However, a number of growth factors have recently been identified within the CNS and have been shown to exert mitogenic and/or neuronotrophic effects (Thoenen & Edgar, 1985; Herschman, 1986). Of these, the best characterized is nerve growth factor (NGF), which has been shown to exhibit a heterogeneous distribution throughout brain (Ayer-Lelievre et al, 1983; Shelton & Reichardt, 1986; Whittemore et al, 1986; Scott et al, 1981). It is synthesized primarily, but not exclusively, in cortex and hippocampus (Shelton and Reichardt, 1986; Whittemore et al., 1986), and is retrogradely transported as a ligand-receptor complex from these regions to cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons (Seiler and Schwab, 1984). In both nucleus basalis and striatum, NGF has been shown to regulate the activity of the cholinergic synthetic enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (Martinez et al., 1985). Given these findings, it has been proposed that NGF acts as a neuronotrophic survival factor for cholinergic neurons within the CNS and that dysregulation of NGF may play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease, which have been correlated with degeneration of cholinergic systems (Bartus et al., 1982; Marx, 1986).
KeywordsEpidermal Growth Factor Nerve Growth Factor Specific Growth Factor Lateral Septum Epidermal Growth Factor Binding
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fallon, J.H., Code, R., Seroogy, K., Kornblum, H., Leslie, F., Twardzik, D. and Lee, D., 1986, Localization and development of growth factors in the CNS: TGF and EGF. Soc. Neur. Abs. 7.Google Scholar
- Golde, D.W., Herschman, H.R., Lusis, A.J. and Groopman, J.E., 1980, Growth factors, Annals. Int. Med., 92: 650–662.Google Scholar
- Haigler, H., 1983, Epidermal growth factor: Cellular binding consequences. In. Growth and Maturation Factors, Wiley, New York, 117–147.Google Scholar
- Herschman, H.R., Goodman, R., Chandler, C., Simpson, D., Cawley, D., Cole, R. and deVellis, J. 1983, Is epidermal growth factor a modulator of nervous system function?, Birth Defects Series, 19: 79–94.Google Scholar
- Johnson, E.M., Rich, K.M. and Yip, H.K., 1986 TINS 9:1–14.Google Scholar
- Savage, C.R., Hash, J.H. and Cohen, S., 1973 Epidermal growth factor and a new derivative. Rapid isolation procedures and biological and chemical characterization, J. Biol. Chem. 274: 7609–7611.Google Scholar
- Savage, C.R., and Cohen, S., 1972, Epidermal growth factor and a new derivative. Rapid isolation procedures and biological and chemical characterization, J. Biol. Chem., 274: 7609–7611.Google Scholar
- Shelton, D.L., and Reichardt, L.F., 1986, Studies on the expression of the Beta nerve growth factor (NGF) gene in the central nervous system: Level and regional distribution of NGF mRNA suggest that NGF functions as a trophic factor for several distinct populations of neurons. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 83: 2714–2718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shreiber, A., Winkler, M. and Derynck, R., 1986, Transforming growth factor alpha — a more potent angiogenic mediator than epidermal growth factor. Science, 232: 1248–1253.Google Scholar