Immunocytochemical Markers for Human Milk Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

  • H. Liapis
  • M. Xanthou
  • H. Mandyla
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 216 A)


Most of the cellular elements obtained from colostrum and early human milk are considered to be macrophages. A varying number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a small number of epithelial cells are also present. The morphologic distinction of epithelial cells within the macrophage population and routine staining is extremely difficult. A number of histo-chemical stains (nonspecific esterase, acid phosphatase, oil red, etc.) have been used in the past to further characterize the cellular population of human milk. Distinction, though, between the macrophages and the epithelial cells on a cytochemical basis has proved to be impossible (1).


Milk Sample Human Milk Breast Epithelial Cell Nonspecific Esterase Indirect Immunoperoxidase 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Liapis
    • 1
  • M. Xanthou
    • 1
  • H. Mandyla
    • 1
  1. 1.B’ Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of “Aghia Sophia” Children’s Hospital and Immunology Department of 1st Pediatric Clinic of Athens UniversityAthensGreece

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