Genetic Expression during Early Mouse Development

  • Terry Magnuson
  • Charles J. Epstein


As described in our earlier review (Magnuson and Epstein, 1981), preimplantation mammalian development is characterized by a complex but integrated continuum of changes in the synthesis of macromolecules (also recently reviewed by G. Schultz, 1986). As a result, embryos acquire properties that are different from those of embryos of earlier stages, and blastomeres within the same embryo eventually come to differ from one another. The developmental program that leads to the formation of the blastocyst, with its two differentiated cell types, the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, is actually initiated during the growth phase of oogenesis with the synthesis of significant quantities of RNA and protein (reviewed by Bachvarova, 1985; R. Schultz, 1986). Many of these macromolecules are carried through fertilization to the embryonic 2-cell stage, at which time the embryonic genome is activated in the mouse. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the evidence concerning the gene expression that is necessary for early development. Our discussion, which updates our earlier review, will be restricted to oogenesis and to the first 5 days of post-fertilization mouse development, up to and including the time of initiation of implantation.


Mouse Embryo Blastocyst Stage Paternal Genome Haploid Embryo Trophoblastic Giant Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Babiarz, B., 1983, Deletion mapping of the T/t complex: evidence for a second region of critical embryonic genes, Dev. Biol. 95: 342–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bachvarova, R., 1985, Gene expression during oogenesis and oocyte development in mammals, in: Developmental Biology. A Comprehensive Synthesis, Volume 1 (L.W. Browder, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 453–524.Google Scholar
  3. Bachvarova, R., and DeLeon, V., 1980, Polyadenylated RNA of mouse ova and loss of maternal RNA in early development, Dev. Biol. 74: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranov, V.S., 1983, Chromosomal control of early embryonic development in mice. I. Experiments on embryos with autosomal monosomy, Genetica 61: 165–177.Google Scholar
  5. Barton, S.C., Surani, M.A.H., and Norris, M.L., 1984, Role of paternal and maternal genomes in mouse development, Nature (London) 311: 374–376.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, D., 1975, The T locus of the mouse, Cell 6: 441–454.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, D., 1978, Rescue of a lethal T/t locus genotype by chimaerism with normal embryos, Nature (London) 272: 539.Google Scholar
  8. Bensaude, O., Babinet, C., Morange, M., and Jacob, F., 1983, Heat shock proteins, first major products of zygotic gene activity in the mouse embryo, Nature (London) 305: 331–332.Google Scholar
  9. Bolton, V.N., Oades, P.J., and Johnson, M., 1984, The relationship between cleavage, DNA replication, and gene expression in the 2-cell mouse embryo, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 79: 139–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boué, J., Boué, A., and Lazar, P., 1975, Retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies of 1500 karyotyped spontaneous human abortions, Teratology 12: 11–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Braude, P., Pelham, H., Flach, G., and Lobatto, R., 1979, Post-transcriptional control in the early mouse embryo, Nature (London) 282: 102–105.Google Scholar
  12. Briggs, R., and King, T.J., 1952, Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs’ eggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 38: 455–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgoyne, P.S., and Biggers, J.D., 1976, The consequences of X-dosage deficiency in the germ line: Impaired development in vitro of preimplantation embryos from XO mice, Dev. Biol. 51: 109–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cascio, S.M., and Wassarman, P.M., 1982, Program of early development in the mammal: Post-transcriptional control of a class of proteins synthesized by mouse oocytes and early embryos, Dev. Biol. 89: 397–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cattanach, B.M., and Kirk, M., 1985, Differential activity of maternally and paternally derived chromosome regions in mice, Nature (London) 315: 496–498.Google Scholar
  16. Clegg, K.B., and Piko, L., 1983a, Poly(A) length, cytoplasmic adenylation and synthesis of poly A+ RNA in early mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 95: 331–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clegg, K.B., and Piko, L., 1983b, Quantitative aspects of RNA synthesis and polyadenylation in 1-cell and 2-cell mouse embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 74: 169–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Copeland, N., Jenkins, N.A., and Lee, B.K., 1983, Association of the lethal yellow (Ay) coat color mutation with an ecotropic murine leukemia virus genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 247–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Debrot, S., and Epstein, C.J., 1986, Tetrasomy 16 in the mouse: a more severe condition than the corresponding trisomy, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 91: 169–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dyban, A.P., and Baranov, V.S., 1978, The Cytogenetics of Mammalian Embryogenesis, Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  21. Eaton, G.J., and Green, M.M., 1963, Giant cell differentiation and lethality of homozygous yellow mouse embryos, Genetica 34: 155–161.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, C.J., 1986, The Consequences of Chromosome Imbalance: Principles, Mechanisms, and Models, Cambridge University Press, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  23. Epstein, C.J., and Travis, B., 1979, Preimplantation lethality of monosomy for mouse chromosome 19, Nature (London) 280: 144–145.Google Scholar
  24. Erickson, R.P., Betlach, C.J., and Epstein, C.J., 1974, Ribonucleic acid and protein metabolism of t 12/t12 embryos and T/t 12 spermatozoa, Differentiation 2: 203–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Falconer, D.S., Latsyzewski, M., and Isaacson, J.H., 1964, Diabetes insipidus associated with oligosyndactyly in the mouse, Genet. Res. 5: 473–488.Google Scholar
  26. Flach, G., Johnson, M.H., Braude, P.R., Taylor, R.A.S., and Bolton, V.N., 1982, The transition from maternal to embryonic control in the 2-cell mouse embryo, EMBO J. 1: 681–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ford, C.E., and Evans, E.P., 1973, Non-expression of genome unbalance in haplophase and early diplophase of the mouse and incidence of karyotypic abnormality in post-implantation embryos, in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Chromosomal Errors in Relation to Reproductive Failure (A. Boué, and C. Thibault, eds.), INSERM, Paris, pp. 271–285.Google Scholar
  28. Fox, H.S., Martin, G.R., Lyon, M.F., Herrmann, B., Frischauf, A.M., Lehrach, H., and Silver, L.M., 1984a, Molecular probes define different regions of the mouse t-complex, Cell 40: 63–69.Google Scholar
  29. Fox, H.S., Silver, L.M., and Martin, G.R., 1984b, An alpha globin pseudogene is located within the mouse t-complex, Immunogenetics 19: 125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Giebelhaus, D.H., Heikkila, J.J., and Schultz, G.A., 1983, Changes in the quantity of histone and actin messenger RNA during the development of preimplantation mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 98: 148–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Giebelhaus, D.H., Weitlauf, H.M., and Schultz, G.A., 1985, Actin mRNA content in normal and delayed implanting mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 107: 407–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gilbert, S.F., and Solter, D., 1985, Onset of paternal and maternal Gpi-1 expression in preimplantation mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 109: 515–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ginsberg, L., and Hillman, N., 1975, ATP metabolism in t n/tn mouse embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 715–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S., 1979, Genetic control of morphogenetic and biochemical differentiation: lethal albino deletions in the mouse, Cell 16: 225–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S., and Erickson, R.P., 1970, The t locus of the mouse: implications for mechanisms of development, Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 5: 281–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Graham, C.F., 1970, Parthenogenetic mouse blastocysts, Nature (London) 226: 165–167.Google Scholar
  37. Graham, C.F., 1974, The production of parthenogenetic mammalian embryos and their use in biological research, Biol. Rev. 49: 399–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Green, E.L., 1981, Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Gropp, A., Giers, D., and Kolbus, U., 1974, Trisomy in fetal backcross progeny of male and female metacentric heterozygotes of the mouse. I., Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 13: 511–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gropp, A., Kolbus, U., and Giers, D., 1975, Systematic approach to the study of trisomy in the mouse, Cytogenetics 14: 42–62.Google Scholar
  41. Groudine, M., and Conkin, K.F., 1985, Chromatin structure and de novo methylation of sperm DNA: implications for activation of the paternal genome, Science 228: 1061–1068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grüneberg, H., 1956, Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse. XVIII. Three genes for syndactylism, J. Genet. 54: 113–145.Google Scholar
  43. Grüneberg, H., 1961, Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse. XXVII. The development of oligosyndactylism, Genet. Res. 2: 33–42.Google Scholar
  44. Gurdon, J.B., 1962a, Adult frogs from the nuclei of single somatic cells, Dev. Biol. 4: 256–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gurdon, J.B., 1962b, The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 10: 622–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hassold, T.J., Matsuymama, A., Newlands, J.M., Matsuura, J.S., Jacobs, P.A., Manuel, B., and Tsuei, J., 1978, A cytogenetic study of spontaneous abortions in Hawaii, Ann. Hum. Genet. 41: 443–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hillman, N., and Hillman, R., 1975, Ultrastructural studies of t w32/tw32 mouse embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 685–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hillman, N., Hillman, R., and Wileman, G., 1970, Ultrastructural studies of cleavage stage t 12/t12 mouse embryos, J. Reprod. Fertil. 33: 501–506.Google Scholar
  49. Hoppe, P.C., and Illmensee, K., 1977, Microsurgically produced homozygous-diploid uniparental mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 5657–5661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoppe, P.C., and Illmensee, K., 1982, Full-term development after transplantation of parthenogenetic embryonic nuclei into fertilized mouse eggs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 1912–1916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Howlett, S.K., and Bolton, V.N., 1985, Sequence and regulation of morphological and molecular events during the first cycle of mouse embryogenesis, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 87: 175–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hyafil, F., Morello, D., Babinet, D., and Jacob, F., 1980, A cell surface glycoprotein involved in the compaction of embryonal carcinoma cells and cleavage stage embryos, Cell 21: 927–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hyafil, F., Babinet, C., and Jacob, F., 1981, Cell-cell interactions in early embryogenesis: a molecular approach to the role of calcium, Cell 26: 447–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Iles, S.A., McBurney, M.W., Bramwell, S.R., Deussen, Z.A., and Graham, C.F., 1975, Development of parthenogenetic and fertilized mouse embryos in the uterus and in extra-uterine sites, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 34: 387–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Illmensee, K., and Hoppe, P.C., 1981, Nuclear transplantation in Mas musculus: developmental potential of nuclei from preimplantation embryos, Cell 23: 9–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Izant, J.G., and Weintraub, H., 1984, Inhibition of thymidine kinase gene expression by anti-sense RNA: a molecular approach to genetic analysis, Cell 36: 1007–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Izant, J.G., and Weintraub, H., 1985, Constitutive and conditional suppression of exogenous and endogenous genes by anti-sense RNA, Science 228: 345–352.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, D.R., 1974, Hairpin-tail: A case of post-reductional gene action in the mouse egg?, Genetics 76: 795–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson, D.R., 1975, Further observations on the hairpin-tail (t hp) mutation in the mouse, Genet. Res. 24: 207–213.Google Scholar
  60. Kadam, K.M., 1962, Genetical studies on the skeleton of the mouse. XXXI. The muscular anatomy of syndactylism and oligosyndactylism, Genet. Res. 3: 139–156.Google Scholar
  61. Kaufman, M.H., and Gardner, R.L., 1974, Diploid and haploid mouse parthenogenetic development following in vitro activation and embryo transfer, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 31: 635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaufman, M.H., and Sachs, L., 1975, The early development of haploid and aneuploid parthenogenetic embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 34: 645–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kaufman, M.H., Barton, S.C., and Surani, M.A.H., 1977, Normal postimplantation development of mouse parthenogenetic embryos to the forelimb bud stage, Nature (London) 265: 53–55.Google Scholar
  64. Kemler, R., Babinet, C., and Jacob, F., 1977, Surface antigen in early differentiation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 4449–4452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Levey, I.L., Stull, G.B., and Brinster, R.L., 1978, Poly(A) and synthesis of polyadenylated RNA in the preimplantation mouse embryo, Dev. Biol. 64: 140–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewis, S.E., 1978, Developmental analysis of lethal effects of homozygosity for the c 25H deletion in the mouse, Dev. Biol. 65: 553–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lovett, M., Yokoi, T., and Epstein, C.J., 1985, The lethal yellow mutation of the mouse: identification of a host transcription unit closely linked to a proviral integration site and homologous to a human DNA sequence, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 37: A127 (abst).Google Scholar
  68. Luthardt, F.W., 1976, Cytogenetic analysis of oocytes and early preimplantation embryos from XO mice, Dev. Biol. 54: 73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lyon, M.F., and Glenister, P.H., 1977, Factors affecting the observed number of young resulting from adjacent-2 disjunction in mice carrying a translocation, Genet. Res. 29: 83–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyon, M.F., Ward, H.C., Simpson, G.M., 1976, A genetic method for measuring non-disjunction in mice with Robertsonian translocations, Genet. Res. 26: 283–295.Google Scholar
  71. Magnuson, T., 1983, Genetic abnormalities and early mammalian development, in: Development in Mammals, Volume 5 (M.H. Johnson, ed.), Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 209–249.Google Scholar
  72. Magnuson, T., 1986, Mutations and chromosomal abnormalities: How are they useful for studying genetic control of early mammalian development?, in: Experimental Approaches to Mammalian Embryonic Development (J. Rossant, and R. Pedersen, eds.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 437-473.Google Scholar
  73. Magnuson, T., and Epstein, C.J., 1981, Genetip control of very early mammalian development, Biol. Rev. 56: 369–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Magnuson, T., and Epstein, C.J., 1984, Oligosyndactyly: a lethal mutation in the mouse that results in mitotic arrest very early in development, Cell 38: 823–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Magnuson, T., Smith, S., and Epstein, C.J., 1982, The development of monosomy 19 mouse embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 69: 223–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Magnuson, T., Debrot, S., Dimpfl, J., Zweig, A., Zamora, T., and Epstein, C.J., 1985, The early lethality of autosomal monosomy in the mouse, J. Exp. Zool. 236: 353–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Markert, C.L., 1982, Parthenogenesis, homozygosity, and cloning in mammals, J. Hered. 73: 390–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McGrath, J., and Solter, D., 1984a, Completion of mouse embryogenesis requires both the maternal and paternal genomes, Cell 37: 179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McGrath, J., and Solter, D., 1984b, Inability of mouse blastomere nuclei transferred to enucleated zygotes to support development in vitro, Science 226: 1317–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McGrath, J., and Solter, D., 1984c, Maternal T hp lethality in the mouse is a nuclear, not cytoplasmic, defect, Nature (London) 308: 550–551.Google Scholar
  81. Melton, D., 1985, Injected anti-sense RNAs specifically block messenger RNA translation in vivo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller, D.A., Dev, V.G., Tantravahi, R., Miller, O.J., Schiffman, M.B., Yates, R.A., and Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S., 1974, Cytological detection of the c 25H deletion involving the albino (c) locus on chromosome 7 in the mouse, Genetics 78: 905–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Modlinski, J.A., 1975, Haploid mouse embryos obtained by microsurgical removal of one pronucleus, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 897–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Modlinski, J.A., 1980, Preimplantation development of microsurgically obtained haploid and homozygous diploid mouse embryos and effect of pretreatment with cytochalasin B on enucleated eggs, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 60: 153–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Morris, T., 1968, The XO and OY chromosome constitution in the mouse, Genet. Res. 12: 125–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Nadijcka, M.D., Hillman, N., and Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S., 1979, Ultrastructural studies of lethal c 25H/c25H mouse embryos, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 52: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Papaioannou, V.E., and Gardner, R.L., 1979, Investigation of the lethal yellow A y/A y embryo using mouse chimeras, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 52: 153–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Papaioannou, V.E., and Mardon, H., 1983, Lethal nonagouti (ax): description of a second embryonic lethal at the agouti locus, Dev. Genet. 4: 21–29.Google Scholar
  89. Paterson, H.F., 1979, In vivo and in vitro studies on the early embryonic lethal oligosyndactylism (os) in the mouse, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 52: 115–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Paterson, H.F., 1980, In vivo and in vitro studies on the early embryonic lethal tail-short (ts) in the mouse, J. Exp. Zool. 211: 247–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Petzoldt, U., Hoppe, P.C., and Illmensee, K., 1980, Protein synthesis in enucleated fertilized and unfertilized mouse eggs, Wilhelm Roux Arch. Dev. Biol. 189: 215–219.Google Scholar
  92. Peyrieras, N., Hyafil, F., Louvard, D., Ploegh, H.L., and Jacob, F., 1983, Uvomorulin: a non-integral membrane protein of early mouse embryo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 6274–6277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Piko, L., and Clegg, K.B., 1982, Quantitative changes in total RNA, total poly(A), and ribosomes in early mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 89: 362–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Robertson, G.G., 1942a, An analysis of the development of homozygous yellow mouse embryos, J. Exp. Zool. 89: 197–231.Google Scholar
  95. Robertson, G.G., 1942b, Increased viability of homozygous yellow mouse embryos in new uterine environments, Genetics 27: 166–167.Google Scholar
  96. Rohme, D., Fox, H.S., Herrmann, B., Frischauf, A.A., Edstrom, J.E., Mains, P., Silver, L.M., and Lehrach, H., 1984, Molecular clones of the mouse t-complex derived from microdissected metaphase chromosomes, Cell 36: 783–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenberg, U.B., Preiss, A., Seifert, E., Jackie, H., and Knipple, D.C., 1985, Production of phenocopies by Krüppel antisense RNA injection into Drosophila embryos, Nature (London) 313: 703–706.Google Scholar
  98. Rubenstein, J.R., Nicolas, J.R., and Jacob, F., 1984, Non-sense RNA (nsRNA): a tool to specifically inhibit gene expression in vivo, C.R. Seances Acad. Sci. 299: 271–274.Google Scholar
  99. Sawicki, J.A., Magnuson, T., and Epstein, C.J., 1982, Evidence for expression of the paternal genome in the two-cell mouse embryo, Nature (London) 294: 450–451.Google Scholar
  100. Schultz, G., 1986, Utilization of genetic information in the preimplantation mouse embryo, in: Experimental Approaches to Mammalian Embryonic Development (@#@ J. Rossant, and R. Pedersen, eds.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 239-265.Google Scholar
  101. Schultz, R., 1986, Molecular aspects of mammalian oocyte growth and maturation, in: Experimental Approaches to Mammalian Embryonic Development (J. Rossant, and R. Pedersen, eds.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 195-237.Google Scholar
  102. Searle, A.G., and Beechey, C.V., 1978, Complementation studies with mouse translocations, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 20: 282–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Shin, H.S., Flaherty, L., Artzt, K., Bennett, D., and Ravetch, J., 1983, Inversion in the H-2 complex of t haplotypes in mice, Nature (London) 306: 380–383.Google Scholar
  104. Shin, H.S., Bennett, D., and Artzt, K., 1984, Gene mapping within the T/t complex of the mouse. IV. The inverted MHC is intermingled with several t-lethal genes, Cell 39: 573–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Silver, L.M., Garrels, J.I., and Lehrach, H., 1984, Molecular studies of mouse chromosome 17 and the t-complex, in: Genetic Engineering-Principles and Methods, Volume 6 (J.K. Setlow, and A. Hollaender, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 141–156.Google Scholar
  106. Smith, L.J., 1956, A morphological and histochemical investigation of a preimplantation lethal (t 12) in the house mouse, J. Exp. Zool. 132: 51–83.Google Scholar
  107. Spielmann, H., and Erickson, R.P., 1983, Normal adenylate ribonucleotide content in mouse embryos homozygous for the t 12 mutation, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 78: 43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stevens, L.C., 1978, Totipotent cells of parthenogenetic origin in a chimeric mouse, Nature (London) 276: 266–267.Google Scholar
  109. Surani, M.A.H., and Barton, S.C., 1983, Development of gynogenetic eggs in the mouse: implications for parthenogenetic embryos, Science 222: 1034–1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Surani, M.A.H., Barton, S.C., and Norris, M.L., 1984, Development of reconstituted mouse eggs suggests imprinting of the genome during gametogenesis, Nature (London) 308: 548–550.Google Scholar
  111. Takagi, N., 1978, Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in mice, in: Genetic Mosaics and Chimeras in Mammals (L.B. Russell, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 341–360.Google Scholar
  112. Tarkowski, A.K., 1977, In vitro development of haploid mouse embryos produced by bisection of one-cell fertilized eggs, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 38: 187–202.Google Scholar
  113. Tarkowski, A.K., and Rossant, J., 1976, Haploid mouse blastocysts developed from bisected zygotes, Nature (London) 259: 663–665.Google Scholar
  114. Tarkowski, A.K., Witkowska, A., and Nowicka, J., 1970, Experimental parthenogenesis in the mouse, Nature (London) 226: 663–665.Google Scholar
  115. Van Blerkom, J., 1981, Intrinsic and extrinsic patterns of molecular differentiation during oogenesis, embryogenesis, and organogenesis, in: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Implantation (S.R. Glasser, and D.W. Bullock, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 155–176.Google Scholar
  116. Van Blerkom, J., 1985, Post-translational regulation of early development in the mammal, in: Differentiation and Proliferation (C. Venizale, ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 67–86.Google Scholar
  117. Van Valen, P., 1966, Oligosyndactylism, an early embryonic lethal in the mouse, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 15: 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wakasugi, N., 1973, Studies on fertility of DDK mice: reciprocal crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J strains and experimental transplantation of the ovary, J. Reprod. Fertil. 33: 283–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wakasugi, N., 1974, A genetically determined incompatibility system between spermatozoa and eggs leading to embryonic death in mice, J. Reprod. Fertil. 41: 85–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wakasugi, N., Tornita, T., and Kondo, K., 1967, Differences of fertility in reciprocal crosses between inbred strains of mice: DDK, KK and NC., J. Reprod. Fertil. 13: 41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Warner, A.E., Guthrie, S.C., and Gilula, N.B., 1984, Antibodies to gap-junctional protein selectively disrupt junctional communication in the early amphibian embryo, Nature (London) 311: 127–131.Google Scholar
  122. West, J.D., and Green, J.F., 1983, The transition from oocyte-coded to embryo-coded glucose phosphate isomerase in the early mouse embryo, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 78: 127–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Witkowska, A., 1973, Parthenogenetic development of mouse embryos in vivo. II. Postimplantation development, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 30: 547–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Wudl, L., and Chapman, V., 1976, The expression of β-glucuronidase during preimplantation development of mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 48: 104–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Young, R.J., and Sweeney, K., 1979, Adenylation and ADP-ribosylation in the mouse 1-cell embryo, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 49: 139–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry Magnuson
    • 1
  • Charles J. Epstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Developmental Genetics and Anatomy, School of MedicineCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pediatrics and of Biochemistry and BiophysicsUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations