Studies on the Developmental Blocks in Cultured Hamster Embryos

  • Barry D. Bavister


As mentioned in the Preface to this book, most of what we presently know about the regulation of preimplantation embryo development is derived from studies with mouse embryos under in vitro culture conditions. This information is of enormous value, yet we should be concerned about the relative lack of critical data available for other species (with the notable exception of the rabbit: see Chapters 1 and 10). Accepting that embryos of other species need to be intensively investigated, using experimental approaches similar to those applied to mouse embryos over the past 20 years or so, why choose the golden hamster as a model species? The scarcity of published reports on the culture of hamster embryos underscores the difficulty of growing these embryos in vitro; in fact, there has never been a report of successful culture of hamster 2-cell embryos. For some unknown reason, early cleavage stage embryos of the golden hamster are extraordinarily sensitive (compared to mouse embryos) to conventional culture conditions, and the “2-cell block” appears to be absolute (Yanagimachi and Chang, 1964; Whittingham and Bavister, 1974).


Mouse Embryo Embryo Transfer Blastocyst Stage Golden Hamster Preimplantation Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Basler, A., 1978, Timing of meiotic stages in oocytes of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and analysis of induced chromosome aberrations, Hum. Genet. 42: 67–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bavister, B.D., 1981, Analysis of culture media for in vitro fertilization and criteria for success, in: Fertilization and Embryonic Development In Vitro (L. Mastroianni, Jr., and J.D. Biggers, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 41–60.Google Scholar
  3. Bavister, B.D., 1987, A consistently successful procedure for in vitro fertilization of golden hamster eggs, Gamete Res. (submitted).Google Scholar
  4. Bavister, B.D., and Andrews, J.C., 1987, A rapid sperm motility bioassay procedure for quality-control testing of water and culture media, J. In Vitro Fertil. and Embryo Transfer (submitted).Google Scholar
  5. Bavister, B.D., and Minami, N., 1986, Use of cultured mouse oviducts to bypass in vitro development block in cleavage stage hamster embryos, Biol. Reprod. 34 (Suppl. 1): 191a.Google Scholar
  6. Bavister, B.D., and Yanagimachi, R., 1977, The effects of sperm extracts and energy sources on the motility and acrosome reaction of hamster spermatozoa in vitro, Biol. Reprod. 16: 228–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bavister, B.D., Leibfried, M.L., and Lieberman, G., 1983a, Development of preimplantation embryos of the golden hamster in a defined culture medium, Biol. Reprod. 28: 235–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bavister, B.D., Boatman, D.E., Leibfried, L., Loose, M., and Vernon, M.W., 1983b, Fertilization and cleavage of rhesus monkey oocytes in vitro, Biol. Reprod. 28: 983–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biggers, J.D., 1971, New observations on the nutrition of the mammalian oocyte and the preimplantation embryo, in: The Biology of the Blastocyst (R.J. Blandau, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 319–327.Google Scholar
  10. Biggers, J.D., Gwatkin, R.B.L., and Brinster, R.L., 1962, Development of mouse embryos in organ cultures of fallopian tubes on a chemically defined medium, Nature (London) 194: 747–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blandau, R.J., 1949, Observations on implantation of the guinea pig ovum, Anat. Rec. 103: 19–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boatman, D.E., Morgan, P.M., and Bavister, B.D., 1987, Culture of in vitro fertilized rhesus monkey oocytes to peri-implantation stages of development, Biol. Reprod. (submitted).Google Scholar
  13. Boland, M.P., 1984, Use of the rabbit oviduct as a screening tool for the viability of mammalian eggs, Theriogenology 21: 126–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borland, R.M., and Tasca, R.J., 1974, Activation of a Na+-dependent amino acid transport system in preimplantation mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 30: 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borland, R.M., Hazra, S., Biggers, J.D., and Lechene, C.P., 1977, The elemental composition of the environments of the gametes and preimplantation embryo during the initiation of pregnancy, Biol. Reprod. 16: 147–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brinster, R.L., 1971, In vitro culture of the embryo, in: Pathways to Conception (A. Sherman, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp. 245–277.Google Scholar
  17. Brinster, R.L., 1972, Cultivation of the mammalian embryo, in: Growth, Nutrition and Metabolism of Cells in Culture, Vol. II (G.H. Rothblat, and V.J. Cristofalo, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 251–286.Google Scholar
  18. Carney, E.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1985, Development of hamster preimplantation embryos in vitro: effect of bicarbonate and amino acids, Biol. Reprod. 32 (Suppl. 1): 98a.Google Scholar
  19. Carney, E.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1986, Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide stimulates hamster embryo development in vitro, Biol. Reprod. 34 (Suppl. 1): 199a.Google Scholar
  20. Carney, E.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1987a, Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of amino acids on development of hamster 8-cell embryos in vitro, J. In Vitro Fertil. and Embryo Transfer (in press).Google Scholar
  21. Carney, E.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1987b, Regulation of hamster embryo development in vitro by carbon dioxide, Biol. Reprod. (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Caro, C.M., and Trounson, A., 1984, The effect of protein on preimplantation mouse embryo development in vitro, J. In Vitro Fertil. and Embryo Transfer 1: 183–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chakraborty, J., 1981, Fine structural abnormalities in the developing mouse embryo, Gamete Res. 4: 535–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conover, W.J., 1980, Practical Nonparametric Statistics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 299–305.Google Scholar
  25. Critser, E.S., and First, N.L., 1986, Use of a fluorescent stain for visualization of nuclear material in living oocytes and early embryos, Stain Technol. 61: 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cross, P.C., and Brinster, R.L., 1973, The sensitivity of one-cell mouse embryos to pyruvate and lactate, Exp. Cell Res. 77: 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Davis, D.L., and Day, B.N., 1978, Cleavage and blastocyst formation by pig eggs in vitro, J. Anim. Sci. 46: 1043–1053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Defrise, A., 1933, Some observations on living eggs and blastulae of the albino rat, Anat. Rec. 57: 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eyestone, W.H., Northey, D.L., and Leibfried-Rutledge, M.L., 1985, Culture of 1-cell bovine embryos in the sheep oviduct, Biol. Reprod. 32 (Suppl. 1): 100 a.Google Scholar
  30. Farrell, P.S., 1983, A comparative study of culture requirements for hamster and mouse preimplantation embryo development, M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  31. Farrell, P.S., and Bavister, B.D., 1984, Short-term exposure of two-cell hamster embryos to collection media is detrimental to viability, Biol. Reprod. 31: 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goddard, M.J., and Pratt, H.P.M., 1983, Control of events during early cleavage of the mouse embryo: an analysis of the ‘2-cell block’, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 73: 111–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gwatkin, R.B.L., and Haidri, A.A., 1973, Requirements for the maturation of hamster oocytes in vitro, Exp. Cell Res. 76: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harlow, G.M., and Quinn, P., 1982, Development of preimplantation mouse embryos in vivo and in vitro, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 35: 187–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoppe, R.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1983, Effect of removing the zona pellucida on development of hamster and bovine embryos in vitro and in vivo, Theriogenology 19: 391–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoppe, R.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1984, Evaluation of the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) vital dye viability test with hamster and bovine embryos, Anim. Reprod. Sci. 6: 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hutz, R.J., DeMayo, F.J., and Dukelow, W.R., 1985, The use of vital dyes to assess embryonic viability in the hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, Stain Technol. 60: 163–167.Google Scholar
  38. Jackowski, S.C., 1977, Physiological differences between fertilized and unfertilized mouse ova; glycerol permeability and freezing sensitivity. Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, pp. 15–16.Google Scholar
  39. Juetten, J., and Bavister, B.D., 1983a, The effects of amino acids, cumulus cells, and bovine serum albumin on in vitro fertilization and first cleavage of hamster eggs, J. Exp. Zool. 227: 487–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Juetten, J., and Bavister, B.D., 1983b, Effects of egg aging on in vitro fertilization and first cleavage division in the hamster, Gamete Res. 8: 219–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kane, M.T., and Foote, R.H., 1970, Culture of two-and four-cell rabbit embryos to the expanding blastocyst stage in synthetic media, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133: 921–925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kane, M.T., Carney, E.W., and Bavister, B.D., 1987, Vitamins and amino acids stimulate hamster blastocysts to hatch in vitro, J. Exp. Zool. (in press).Google Scholar
  43. Keefer, C.L., and Tasca, R.J., 1984, Modulation of amino acid transport in preimplantation mouse embryos by low concentrations of non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents, J. Reprod. Fertil. 70: 399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lyman, C.P., and Hastings, A.B., 1951, Total CO2, plasma pH and pCO2 of hamsters and ground squirrels during hibernation, Amer. J. Physiol. 167: 633–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Mohr, L.R., and Trounson, A.O., 1980, The use of fluorescein diacetate to assess embryo viability in the mouse, J. Reprod. Fertil. 58: 189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Orsini, M.W., 1961, The external vaginal phenomena characterizing the stages of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, pseudopregnancy, lactation, and the anestrous hamster, Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse, Proc. Anim. Care Panel 11: 193–206.Google Scholar
  47. Orsini, M.W., 1962, Study of ovo-implantation in the hamster, rat, mouse, guinea-pig and rabbit in cleared uterine tracts, J. Reprod. Fertil. 3: 288–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orsini, M.W., and Donovan, B.T., 1971, Implantation and induced decidualization of the uterus in the guinea pig, as indicated by Pontamine Blue, Biol. Reprod. 5: 270–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ortiz, M.E., Bedregal, P., Carvajal, M.I., and Croxatto, H.B., 1986, Fertilized and unfertilized ova are transported at different rates by the hamster oviduct, Biol. Reprod. 34: 777–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sato, A., and Yanagimachi, R., 1972, Transplantation of preimplantation hamster embryos, J. Reprod. Fertil. 30: 329–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schatten, G., Bestor, T., Balczon, R., Henson, J., and Schatten H., 1985, Intracellular pH shift leads to microtubule assembly and microtubule-mediated motility during sea urchin fertilization, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 36: 116–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Shalgi, R., Kaplan, R., and Kraicer, P.F., 1977, Proteins of follicular, bursal and ampullar fluids of rats, Biol. Reprod. 17: 333–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spielmann, H., Eibs, H.G., and Jacob-Müller, U., 1980, In vitro methods for the study of the effect of teratogens on preimplantation embryos, Acta Morphologica Acad. Sci. Hung. 28: 105–115.Google Scholar
  54. Stewart-Savage, J., and Bavister, B.D., 1987, Deterioration of stored culture media as monitored by a sperm motility bioassay, Gamete Res. (submitted).Google Scholar
  55. Whitten, W.K., 1971, Nutrient requirements for the culture of preimplantation embryos in vitro, in: Schering Symposium on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in Early Mammalian Development, Advances in the Biosciences, Vol. 6 (G. Raspé, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 129–141.Google Scholar
  56. Whittingham, D.G., 1968, Development of zygotes in cultured mouse oviducts, J. Exp. Zool. 169: 391–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Whittingham, D.G., 1975, Fertilization, early development and storage of mammalian ova in vitro, in: The Early Development of Mammals (M. Balls, and A.E. Wild, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., pp. 1–24.Google Scholar
  58. Whittingham, D.G., and Bavister, B.D., 1974, Development of hamster eggs fertilized in vitro or in vivo, J. Reprod. Fertil. 38: 489–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wright, R.J., Jr., and Bondioli, K.R., 1981, Aspects of in vitro fertilization and embryo culture in domestic animals, J. Anim. Sci. 53: 702–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Yanagimachi, R., and Chang, M.C., 1964, In vitro fertilization of golden hamster ova, J. Exp. Zool. 156: 361–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry D. Bavister
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary ScienceUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations