Regulation of Proto-Oncogene Expression During T Lymphocyte Activation and Proliferation
The proliferation of T lymphocytes is regulated in part through their membrane receptors for antigen and for T cell growth factor (interleukin 2, IL-2). Stimulation of resting T cells by specific antigen or by mitogenic cells (phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A) in the presence of accessory cells bearing surface antigens encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus induces T cells to express receptors for IL-2 and (some but not all T cells) to secrete this growth factor. The interaction of IL-2 with its cellular receptor on antigen- or lectin-activated T cells subsequently results in expression of transferrin receptors. Binding of serum transferrin to its receptor in late G1 phase of the cell cycle is then required for T cells to undergo the G1 → S phase transition, thereby initiating DNA synthesis and resulting ultimately in cell division. Other growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors, do not appear necessary, at least for short-term growth of T cells (reviewed in 1–3).
KeywordsTransferrin Receptor Accessory Cell Unstimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Mitogenic Lectin Lymphocyte Mitogenesis
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