Purification of a Survival Factor for Spinal Neurons from Mouse Salivary Gland

  • M. E. Gurney
  • B. R. Apatoff
  • S. P. Heinrich
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 209)


A variety of factors influence neuronal survival and differentiation in culture systems. Since neurons are post-mitotic with only rare exceptions, neurons are not acted upon by mitogens. The factors which have been described to date divide naturally into three categories: factors which influence survival in culture, factors which influence substrate attachment and neurite outgrowth, and factors which influence biochemical differentiation[1]. The biological role in vivo of only one, NGF (nerve growth factor), has received experimental support[2].


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Salivary Gland Nerve Growth Factor Motor Neuron Survival Spinal Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H. Thoenen and D. Edgar, Neurotrophic factors,Science, 229: 238–242 (1985).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Levi-Montalcini, The nerve growth factor: its mode of action on sensory and sympathetic cells, Harvey Lectures, 60: 217–259 (1966).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. W. Gunderson and J. N. Barret, Neuronal chemotaxis: chick dorsal-root axons turn toward high concentrations of nerve growth factor, Science, 206: 1079–1080 (1979).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. G. Menesini-Chen, JJ. S. Chen, and R. Levi-Montalcini, Sympathetic nerve fibers ingrowth in the central nervous system of neonatal rodent upon intracerebral NGF injections, Arch. Ital. Biol., 116: 53–84 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Levi-Montalcini and B. Booker, Destruction of the sympathetic ganglia in mammals by an antiserum to a nerve-growth protein, PNAS (USA), 46: 384–391 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Hamburger, Regression versus peripheral control of differentiation in motor hypoplasia, Am. J. Anat., 102: 365–410 (1958).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. L. Giller, Jr., J. H. Neale, P. N. Bullock, B. K. Schrier, and P. G. Nelson, Choline acetyltransferase activity of spinal cord cell cultures increased by co-culture with muscle and by muscle conditioned-medium, J. Cell Biol., 74: 16–29 (1977).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Brookes, D. R. Burt, A. M. Goldberg, and G. G. Bierkamper, The influence of muscle-conditioned medium on cholinergic maturation in spinal cord cell cultures, Brain Res., 186: 474–479 (1980).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. R. Bennet, K. Lai, and V. Nurcombe, Identification of embryonic motoneurons in vitro: their survival is dependent on skeletal muscle, Brain Res., 190: 537–542 (1980).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. E. Henderson, M. Huchet, and J-P. Changeux, Neurite outgrowth from embryonic chicken spinal neurons is promoted by media conditioned by muscle cells, PNAS (USA), 78: 2625–2629 (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. B. Dribin and J. N. Barrett, Conditioned medium enhances neuritic outgrowth from rat spinal cord explants, Dev. Biol, 74: 184–195 (1981).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tanaka, M. Sakai, and K. Obata, Effects of serum, tissue extract, conditioned medium, and culture substrata on neurite appearance from spinal cord explants of chick embryo, Dev. Brain Res., 4: 303–312 (1982).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. R. Sanes, More nerve growth factors?, Nature, 307: 500 (1984).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. C. Brown, R. L. Holland, and W. G. Hopkins, Motor nerve sprouting, Ann. Rev. Neurosci, 4: 17–42 (1981).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. E. Gurney, Suppression of sprouting at the neuromuscular junction by immune sera, Nature, 307: 546–548 (1984).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. E. Gurney, A. C. Belton, N. Cashman, and J. P. Antel, Inhibition of terminal axonal sprouting by serum from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, New Eng. J. Med., 311: 933–939 (1984).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Pestronk and D. B. Drachman, Motor nerve terminal outgrowth and acetylcholine receptors: inhibition of terminal outgrowth by alpha-bungarotoxin and anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody, J. Neurosci., 5: 751–758 (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. E. Gurney and B. R. Apatoff, Activity of a muscle-derived growth factor for spinal neurons in vitro and in vivo, Soc. Neurisci. Abstr., 10: 1051 (1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Gurney
    • 1
  • B. R. Apatoff
    • 1
  • S. P. Heinrich
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Pharmacological and Physiological SciencesThe University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations