The Role of Axoplasmic Transport in the Restoration of Synaptic Transmission and in the Process of Sprouting During Nerve Regeneration
After lesion of a peripheral nerve there is a complex of histometabolic reactions that occurs in the cell body and dendritic tree. Some changes are even observable at the light microscopic level and were termed chromatolysis. In summary, the reaction is characterized by dissolution of the basophilic granules, rounding of the perikaryon, enlargement of the nucleolus, and dispersal of the Nissl substance. The latter corresponds to the disaggregation of cytoplasmic ribosomal clusters and deagranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. This process is inhibited if actinomycin D is injected at the time of the axonal damage or within 9 hours, suggesting the involvement of RNA synthesis as a trigger for chromatolytic reaction[l]. It is a fact that regenerating neurons produce more proteins, even at faster rates, as shown by many laboratories (see other chapters in ref.[l]).
KeywordsNerve Ending Neuromuscular Junction Axonal Transport Nerve Regeneration Hypertonic Solution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.G. W. Kreutzberg, The regeneration program of the neuron: an introduction, in: “Post-Traumatic Nerve Regeneration”, A. Gorio, H. Millesi, and S. Mingrino, eds., pp. 3–6, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
- 6.A. Gorio, Muscle innervation and reinnervation as a model for development and specificty of neuronal connections, in: “Multi- Disciplinary Approach to Brain Development”, C. Di Benedetta, R. Balazs, G. Gombos, and G. Porcellati, eds., pp. 439–452, Elsevier/ North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam (1980).Google Scholar
- 7.A. Gorio, G. Carmignoto, and G. Ferrari, Axonal sprouting stimulated by gangliosides. A new model for elongation and sprouting, in: “Gangliosides in Neurological and Neuromuscular Function Development and Repair”, A. Gorio and M. Rapport, eds., pp. 177–195, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
- 8.R. F. Mark, Synaptic repression at neuromuscular junctions, Physiol. Reviews, 60: 355–395 (1980).Google Scholar
- 12.A. Gorio and G. Carmignoto, Reformation, maturation and stabilization of neuromuscular junctions in peripheral nerve regeneration. The possible role of exogenous gangliosides on determining motor neuron sprouting, in: “Post-Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Regeneration”, A. Gorio, H. Millesi and S. Mingrino, eds., pp. 481–493, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
- 14.G. Carmignoto, M. Finesso, L. Tredese, and A. Gorio, Transmitter release mechanisms during the early stages of reinnervation of a fast twitch muscle of the rat. Effects of ganglioside treatments, in: “Membranes and the Environment, Responses of Membranes to External Agents”, K. Block, L. Bolis, and T. Tosteson, eds., pp. 297–312, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
- 15.A. Gorio, Receptors innervation, and neurotransmitter release: micro-physiology of chemical synapses, in: “Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology”, G. Pepeu, M. J. Kuhar, and S. J. Enna, eds., pp. 57–65, Raven Press, New York (1980).Google Scholar
- 18.J. D. Cook, K. Okamoto, and D. M. J. Quastel, The role of calcium in depolarization secretion coupling at the motor nerve terminal, J.Physiol., 228: 459–497 (1973).Google Scholar
- 21.R. J. Lasek, I. G. McQuarrie and J. R. Wujek, The central nervous system regeneration problem: neuron and environment, in: “Post- Traumatic Nerve Regeneration”, A. Gorio, H. Millesi, and S. Mingrino, eds., pp. 59–74, Raven Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar