Effect of PAF on the Cardiovascular System

  • Giora Feuerstein
  • Robert E. Goldstein


The term platelet-activating factor (PAF) proposed by Benveniste et al. (1972) was originally designed to indicate the primary biological properties of a novel substance released from basophils upon IgE stimulation. This factor was later identified independently by three separate groups (Benveniste et al., 1979; Blank et al., 1979; Demopoulos et al., 1979) to be l-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. This novel group of compounds was rapidly recognized to have diverse biological actions, far beyond those originally shown on platelets. It also became apparent that PAF can be synthesized and released from a multitude of cells and organs by immune and nonimmune stimuli (Benveniste and Chignard, 1985; Snyder, 1985; Vanhoutte and Houston, 1985; Zimmerman et al., 1985).


Left Anterior Descend Platelet Activate Factor Platelet Activate Factor Antagonist Femoral Artery Blood Flow Left Anterior Descend Flow 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adnot, S., Lefort, J., Lagent, V., Braquet, P., Vargaftig, B. B., 1986, Interference of BN 52021, a PAF-acether antagonist, with endotoxin induced hypotension in the guinea pig,Pharmacol. Rev. 18:197–200.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, C. B., Page, C. P., Paul, W., Morley, J., and McDonald, D. M., 1983, Early and late inflammatory effects of PAF-acether in the skin of experimental animals and man,J. Invest. Dermatol. 80:346–347.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, C. B., Frohlich, W., Page, C. W., Paul, W., Morley, J., and McDonald, D. M., 1984, Synergistic interaction between prostaglandins and PAF-acether in experimental animals and man,Prostaglandins27:495–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranes, J., Helleganarch, A., Le Hegarat, M., Viossat, I., Auguet, M., Chabrier, P. E., Clostre, F., and Braquet, P., 1986, The effect of PAF-acether on the cardiovascular system and their inhibition by a new highly specific PAF-acether receptor antagonist BN 52021,Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 8:717–737 (Feb.).Google Scholar
  5. Benveniste, J., and Chignard, M., 1985, A role for PAF-acether (platelet activating factor) in platelet-dependent vascular diseases,Circulation72:713–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benveniste, J., Henson, P. M., and Cochrane, C. G., 1972, Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelets. The role of IgE, basophils, and a platelet-activating factor,J. Exp. Med. 136:1356–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benveniste, J., Tence, M., Varenne, P., Bidault, J., Boullet, C., and Polonsky, J., 1979, Semi-synthese et structure purposee du facteur activant les plaquettes (PAF); PAF-acether, un alkyl ether analogue de la lysophosphatidylcholine,C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D289:1037–1040.Google Scholar
  8. Benveniste, J., Boullet, C., Brink, C., and Labat, C., 1983, The action of PAF-acether (platelet activating factor) on guinea pig isolated heart preparations,Br. J. Pharmacol. 80:81–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bessin, P., Bonnet, J., Apffel, D., Soulard, C., Desgroux, L., Plas, I., and Benveniste, J., 1983, Acute circulatory collapse caused by platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) in dogs,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 86:403–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjork, J., and Smedegard, G., 1983, Acute microvascular effects of PAF-acether as studied by intravital microscopy,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 96:87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blank, M. L., Snyder, F., Byers, L. W., Brooks, B., and Muirhead, E. E., 1979, Antihypertensive activity of an alkyl ether analog of phosphatidylcholine,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 90:1194–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blank, M. L., Cress, E. A., Lee, T.-C., Malone, B., Surles, J. R., Piantadosi, C., Hajdu, J., and Snyder, F., 1982, Structural features of platelet activating factor (l-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) required for hypotensive and platelet serotonin responses,Res. Commun. Chem. Path. Pharmacol. 38:3–20.Google Scholar
  13. Blank, M. L., Hall, M. N., Cress, E. A., and Snyder, F., 1983, Inactivation of l-alkyl-2-acetyl-sAi-glycero-3-phosphocholine by a plasma acetylhydrolase: Higher activities in hypertensive rats,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113:666–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blankley, C. J., and Kaplan, H. R., 1984, Biologically active phospholipids as potential cardiovascular drugs,Drug Dev. Res. 4:351–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonnet, J., Loiseau, A. M., Orvoen, M., and Bessin, P., 1981, Platelet activating factor acether (PAF-acether) involvement in acute inflammatory and pain processes,Agents Actions11:559–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bourgain, R. H., Maes, L., Braquet, P., Andries, R., Touqui, L., and Braquet, M., 1985, The effect of l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAF-acether) on the arterial wall,Prostaglandins30:185–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyd, L. M., Ezra, D., Feuerstein, G., and Goldstein, R. E.. 1983, Effect of FPL 55712 or indo-methacin on leukotriene-induced coronary constriction in the intact pig heart,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 89:307–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Braquet, P., Vidal, R. F., Hamard, H., and Vargaftig, B. B., 1984, Involvement of leukotrienes and PAF acether in the increased microvascular permeability of rabbit retina,Agents Actions15:82–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Braquet, P., Etienne, A., Touvay, C., Bourgain, R. H., Lefort, J., and Vargaftig, B., 1985a, Involvement of platelet-activating factor in respiratory anaphylaxis demonstrated by PAF-acether inhibitor BN 52021,Lancet I8444:1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braquet, P., Spinnewyn, B., Braquet, M., Bourgain, R. H., Taylor, J. E., Nunez, D., and Drieu, K., 1985b, BN 52021 and related compounds: A new series of highly specific PAF-acether receptor antagonsts isolated fromGinkgo biloba, Blood Vessels(in press).Google Scholar
  21. Caillard, C. G., Mondot, S., Zundel, J. L., and Julou, L., 1982, Hypotensive activity of PAF-acether in rats,Agents Actions12:725–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Camussi, G., Aglietta, M., Malavasi, F., Tetta, C., Piacibello, W., Sanavio, F., and Bussolino, F., 1983, The release of platelet activating factor from human endothelial cells in culture,J. Immunol. 131:2397–2403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Camussi, G., Alloatti, G., Montrucchio, G., Meda, M., and Emanuelli, G., 1984, Effect of platelet activating factor on guinea pig papillary muscle,Experientia40:697–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cervoni, P., Herzlinger, H. E., Lai, F. M., and Tanikella, T. K., 1983, Aortic vascular and atrial responses to (±)-l-0-octadecyl-2-acetyl-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine,Br. J. Pharmacol. 79:667– 671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cervoni, P., Goldstein, B. M., Herelinger, H., Lai, F. M., and Quirk, G. J., 1984, Evidence for the lack of interaction between (//-)-l-0-octadecyl-2-acetyl-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine and a-adrenocep-tors in vivo and in vitro,Br. J. Pharmacol. 83:511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Demopoulos, C. A., Pinckard, R. N., and Hanahan, D. J., 1979, Platelet activating factor: Evidence for l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-s«-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine as the active component (a new class of liquid chemical mediator),J. Biol. Chem. 254:9355–9358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doebber, T. W., Wu, M. S., Robbins, J. C., Choy, B. M., Chang, M. N., and Shen, T. Y., 1985, Platelet activating factor (PAF) involvement in endotoxin induced hypotension in rats. Studies with PAF receptor antagonist kadsurenone,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 127:799–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Etienne, A., Hecquet, F., Soulard, C., Spinnewy, B., Clostre, F., and Braquet, P., 1985, In vivo inhibition of plasma protein leakage andSalmonella enteritidisinduced mortality in the rat by a specific PAF-acether antagonist BN 52021,Agents Actions17(3–4):368–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Farber, J. E., Barron, K. W., Bonham, A. C., Lappe, R., Muirhead, E. E.. and Brody, M. J., 1984, Regional hemodynamic effects of antihypertensive renomedullary lipids in conscious rats,Hypertension6:494–502.Google Scholar
  30. Feuerstein, G., 1984, Leukotrienes and the cardiovascular system.Prostaglandins27:781–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Feuerstein, G., 1985, Autonomic pharmacology of leukotrienes,J. Anton. Pharmacol. 5:149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Feuerstein, G., Zukowska-Grojec, Z.. Krausz, M. M., Blank, M. L., Snyder, F., and Kopin, I. J., 1982, Cardiovascular and sympathetic effects of l-0-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phos-phocholine in conscious SHR and WKY rats,Clin. Exp. Hypertens. [A]4:1335–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feuerstein, G., Boyd, L. M., Ezra, D., and Goldstein, R. E., 1984, Effect of platelet activating factor on coronary circulation of the domestic pig.Am. J. Physiol. 246:H466–H471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Feuerstein, G.. Ezra. D., Ramwell. P. W., Letts. G.. and Goldstein. R. E.. 1985a. Platelet activating factor as a modulator of cardiac and coronary functions, in:Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Lipoxins(J. M. Bailey, ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 301–310.Google Scholar
  35. Feuerstein, G., Lux, W. E., Ezra, D., Hayes, E. C., Snyder, F., and Faden, A. I., 1985b, Thyrotropin releasing hormone blocks the hypotensive effects of platelet activating factor in the unanesthetized guinea pig,J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 7:335–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foegh, M. L., Khirabadi, B. S., Rowles, J., Braquet, P., and Ramwell, P. W., 1985, Prolongation of rat cardiac allograft survival with BN 52021 a specific antagonist of platelet activating factor,Transplantation42(l):86–88.Google Scholar
  37. Goldstein, B. M., Gabel, R. A., Huggins, F. J., Cervoni, P., and Crandall, D. L., 1984, Effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on blood flow distribution in the spontaneously hypertensive rat,Life Sci. 35:1373–1378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gothberg, G., Lundin, S., and Folkow, B., 1978, Acute vasodepressor effect in normotensive rats following extracorporeal perfusion of the declipped kidney of two kidney, one clip hypertensive rats,Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 54:361–367.Google Scholar
  39. Grandel, K. E., Farr, R. S., Wanderer, A. A., Eisenstadt, T. C., and Wasserman, S. I., 1985, Association of platelet activating factor with primary acquired cold urticaria,N. Engl. J. Med. 313:405–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grollman, A., and Rule, C., 1943, Experimental induced hypertension in parabiotic rats.Am. J. Physiol. 138:587–592.Google Scholar
  41. Humphrey, D. M., Hanahan, D. J., and Pinckard, R. N., 1982a, Induction of leukocytic infiltrates in rabbit skin by acetyl glycerl ether phosphorylcholine,Lab. Invest. 47:227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Humphrey, D. M., McManus, L. M., Satouchi, K., Hanahan, D. J., and Pinckard, R. N., 1982b, Vasoactive properties of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine and analogues,Lab. Invest. 46:422–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Inarrea, P., Alonso, F., and Sanchez-Crespo, M., 1983, Platelet activating factor: An effector substance of vasopermeability changes induced by the infusion of immune aggregates in the mouse,Immu-nopharmacology6:7–14.Google Scholar
  44. Inarrea, P., Gomez-Cambronero, J., Pascual, J., Carmen-Ponte del, M., Hernando, L., and Sanchez-Crespo, M., 1985, Synthesis of PAF-acether and blood volume changes in Gram negative sepsis,Immunopharmacology9:45–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jackson, C. V., Driscoll, E. M., Pope, T. K., and Lucchesi, B. R., 1985, PAF in platlet-mediated coronary artery vasodilation,Circulation72 (Pt. I, No. 4): 190 (abstract).Google Scholar
  46. Kenzora, J. L., Perez, J. E., Bergmann. S. R.. and Lange, L.. 1984, Effects of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (platelet activating factor) on ventricular preload, afterload and contractility in dogs,J. Clin. Invest. 74:1193–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lai, F. M., Shepherd, C. A., Cervoni, P., and Wissner, A., 1983, Hypotensive and vasodilatory activity of (H-)l-0-octadecyl-2-acetyl-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine in the normotensive rats,Life Sci. 32:1159–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Laurindo, F. R. M., Ezra, D., Czaja, J. F., Feuerstein, G., and Goldstein, R. E., 1985a, Acute right ventricular failure due to platelet activating factor or thromboxane A2 analog,Clin. Res. 33:203A (abstract).Google Scholar
  49. Laurindo, F. R. M., Ezra, D., Feuerstein, G., and Goldstein, R. E., 1985b, Spontaneous escape from coronary constriction due to thromboxane A2 analog infusion,Clin. Res. 33:204A (abstract).Google Scholar
  50. Levi, R., Burke, J. A., Guo, Z. G., Hattori, Y., Hoppens, C. M., McManus, L. M., Hanahan, D. J., and Pinckard, R. N., 1984, Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorycholine (AGEPC). A putative mediator of cardiac anaphylaxis in the guinea pig,Circ. Res. 54:117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lux, W. E., Feuerstein, G., and Faden, A. I., 1983a, Thyrotropin releasing hormone reverses experimental anaphylactic shock through non-endorphin related mechanism,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 90:301-302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lux, W. E., Feuerstein, G., and Faden, A. I., 1983b, Thyrotropin releasing hormone reverses the hypotension and bradycardia produced by leukotriene D4 in unanesthetized guinea pigs,Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 10:301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lux, W. E., Feuerstein, G., and Faden, A. I., 1983c, Alteration of leukotriene D4 hypotension by thyrotropin releasing hormone,Nature302:822–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Manger, W. M., Van Praag, D., Weiss, D. J., Hart, C. J., Hulse, M., Rock, T. W., and Farber, S. J., 1976, Effect of transplanting renomedullary tissue into spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR),Fed. Proc. 35:556.Google Scholar
  55. McManus, L. M., Hanahan, D. J., Demopoulos, C. A., and Pinckard, R. N., 1980, Pathobiology of the intravenous infusion of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), a synthetic platelet activating factor (PAF) in the rabbit,J. Immunol. 124:2919–2924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Muirhead, E. E., 1980, Antihypertensive functions of the kidney,Hypertension2:444–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Muirhead, E. E., Brooks, B., Pitcock, J. A., and Stephenson, P., 1972a, Renomedullary antihypertensive function in accelerated (malignant) hypertension: Observations on renomedullary interstitial cells,J. Clin. Invest. 51:181–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muirhead, E. E., Brooks, B., Pitcock, J. A., Stephenson, P., and Brosius, W. L., 1972b, Role of the renal medulla in the sodium sensitive component of renoprival hypertension,Lab. Invest. 27:192-198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Murihead, E. E., Germain, G. S., Leach, B. E., Brooks, B., and Stephenson, R., 1973, Renomedullary interstitial cells (RIC), prostaglandins (PG) and the antihypertensive function of the kidney,Prostaglandins3:581–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Muirhead, E. E., Rightsel, W. A., Leach, B. E., Byers, L. W., Pitcock, J. A., and Brooks, B., 1977, Reversal of hypertension by transplants and lipid extracts of cultured renomedullary interstitial cells,Lab. Invest. 36:162–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Muirhead, E. E., Byers, L. W., Desiderio, D., Smith, K. A., Prewitt, R. L., and Brooks, B., 1981a, Alkyl ether analogs of phosphatidylcholine are orally active in hypertensive rabbits,Hypertension3:I107-I111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Muirhead, E. E., Byers, L. W., Desiderio, D., Brooks, B., and Brosius, W. M., 1981b, Antihypertensive lipids from the kidney: Alkyl ether analogs of phosphatidylcholine,Fed. Proc. 40:2285–2290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Muirhead, E. E., Folkow, B., Byers, L. W., Desiderio, D. M., Thoren, P., Gothberg, G., Dow, A. W., and Brooks, B., 1983, Cardiovascular effects of antihypertensive polar and neutral renomedullary lipids,Hypertension(Suppl 1) 5:1112–1118.Google Scholar
  64. Namm, D. H., Tadepalli, A. S., and High, J. A., 1982, Species specificity of the platelet response to l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,Thromb. Res. 25:341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Otsuka, A., Masugi, F., Ogihara, T., Saeki, S., Nagano, M., Koyama, Y., Tabuchi, Y., andKumahara, Y., 1985, Hypotensive mechanism of acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC) in dogs. Effects on hemodynamics and humoral factors,Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 19:25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pinckard, R. M., Kniker, W. T., Lee, L., Hanahan, D. J., and McManus, L. M., 1980, Vasoactive effects of l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC) in human skin,J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 65:196.Google Scholar
  67. Piper, P. J., 1985, Leukotrienes, PAF and the heart. Proceedings of the Symposium “Leukotrienes et PAF-acether,” Societe de Pharmacologie Experimentale, Paris (Abstract).Google Scholar
  68. Pirotzky, E., Page, C. P., Roubin. R., Pfister, A., Paul, W.. Bonnet, J., and Benveniste, J.. 1984, PAF-acethcr induced plasma extravasation in rat skin is independent of platelets and neutrophils,Micro. Endoth. Lymph. 1:107–122.Google Scholar
  69. Prevost, M. C. Cariven, C. Simon, M. F.. Chap, H.. and Douste Blazy, L., 1984, Platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) is released in rat pulmonary alveolar fluid as a consequence of hypoxia,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commiin. 119:58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Prewitt, R. L.. Leach. B. E., Byers, L. W.. Brooks, B., Lands, W. E., and Muirhead, E. E., 1979. Antihypertensive polar renomedullary lipid: A semisynthetic vasodilator.Hypertension1:299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Saeki, S., Masugi, F., Ogihara, T.. Otsuka, A.. Kumahara. Y., Watanabe. K., Tamura, K., Akashi, H., and Kumagai. A., 1985, Effects of l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor) on cardiac function in perfused guinea pig heart.Life Sci. 37:325–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sanchez-Crespo. M.. Alonso, F., Inarrea, P., Alvarez. V., and Egido. J., 1982, Vascular actions of synthetic PAF-acether (a synthetic platelet activating factor) in the rat: Evidence for a platelet independent mechanism,lmmunopharmacology4:173–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sanchez-Crespo. M., Fernandez Gallardo, S., Nieto, M. L., Baranes, J., and Braquet, P., 1985, Inhibition of the vascular actions of IgG aggregates by BN 52021, a highly specific antagonist of PAF-acether,lmmunopharmacology10:69–75.Google Scholar
  74. Shen, T. Y., Hwang, S. B., Chang, M. N., Doebber, T. W., Lam, M. H., Wu. M. S., Wang, X., Han, G. Q.. and Run, Z. L.. 1985, Characterization of a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist isolated from haifenteng(Piper futokadsura): Specific inhibition ofin vitroandin vivoplatelet-activating factor-induced effects,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA82:672–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, K. A., Prewitt, R. L., Byers, L. W., and Muirhead, E. E., 1981, Analogs of phosphatidylcholine: a-Adrenergic antagonists from the renal medulla,Hypertension3:460–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Snyder, F., 1985. Chemical and biochemical aspects of platelet activating factor: A novel class of acetylated ether-linked choline phospholipids,Medicinal Res. Rev. 5:107–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stimler, N. P., Bloor, C. M.,Hugli.T. E.. Wykle. R. L.. McCall, C. E.. and O’Flaherty, J. T.. 1981, Anaphylactic actions of platelet activating factor.Am. J. Pathol. 105:64–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Sun, F. F., and McGuire, J. C., 1983, Inhibition of human neutrophil arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase by 6,9-deepoxy-6,9-/V-(phenylimino)--6.8-prostaglandin I1, (U-60257),Prostaglandins36:211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sybertz, E. J., Watkins, R. W., Baum, T., Pula, K., and Rivelli, M., 1985, Cardiac, coronary and peripheral vascular effects of acetyl glyceryl phosphoryl choline in the anesthetized dog,J. Phar macol. Exp. Ther. 232:156–162.Google Scholar
  80. Terashita, Z. I., Tsushima, S., Yoshioka, Y., Nomura, H., Inada, Y., and Nishikawa, K., 1983, CV-3988-A specific antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF),Life Sci. 32:1975–1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Terashita, Z. I., Imura. Y., Nishikawa, K., and Sumida, S., 1985, Is platelet activating factor (PAF) a mediator of endotoxin shock,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 109:257–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vanhoutte, P. M., and Houston, D. S., 1985. Platelets, endothelium and vasospasm,Circulation72:728–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vargaftig, B. B., Lefort, J., Chignard, M., and Benveniste, J., 1980, Platelet activating factor induces a platelet dependent bronchoconstriction unrelated to the formation of prostaglandin derivatives,Eur. J. Pharmacol. 65:185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vemulapalli, S., Chiu, P. J., and Barnett, A., 1984, Cardiovascular and renal action of platelet activating factor in anesthetized dogs,Hypertension6:489–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Voelkel, N. F., Worthen, S., Reeves, J. T., Henson, P. M., and Murphy, R. C, 1982, Nonim-munological production of leukotrienes induced by platelet-activating factor,Science218:286–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weisman, S. M., Felson, D., and Vaughan, E. D., 1985, Platelet activating factor is a potent stimulus for renal prostaglandin synthesis. Possible significance in unilateral ureteral obstruction,J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 235:10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Young, J. M., Maloney, P. J., Jubb, S. N., and Clark, J. S., 1985, Pharmacological investigation of the mechanism of platelet activating factor induced mortality in the mouse,Prostaglandins30:545–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zimmerman, G. A., McIntyre, T. M., and Prescott, S. M., 1985, Production of platelet activating factor by human vascular endothelial cells: Evidence for a requirement for specific agonists and modulation by prostacyclin,Circulation72:718–727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zukowska-Grojec, Z., Blank, M. L., Snyder, F., and Feuerstein, G., 1985, The adrenergic system and the cardiovascular effects of platelet activating factor (l-0-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phos-phocholine) in SHR and WKY rats,Clin. Exp. Hypertens. [A]7:1015–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giora Feuerstein
    • 1
  • Robert E. Goldstein
    • 2
  1. 1.Neurobiology Research Division, Department of NeurologyUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations