Advertisement

Introduction Historical Aspects of Alkyl Lipids and Their Biologically Active Forms (Ether Lipids, Platelet-Activating Factor, and Antihypertensive Renal Lipids)

  • Fred Snyder

Abstract

This introduction reviews highlights of key historical developments that have occurred in research with alkyl ether glycerolipids, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and a group of renal antihypertensive lipids. It is not intended to represent an exhaustive survey of the literature, but instead attempts to explain how the three areas became integrated. The period of history covered (Fig. 1) ranges from the 1920s, when the alkyl lipids were first detected in fish, to 1980, when proof of the chemical structure and the enzymatic pathways for the biosynthesis of PAF were established.

Keywords

Renal Medulla Ether Lipid Glyceryl Ether Alkyl Ether Rabbit Platelet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Benveniste, J., Henson. P. M., and Cochrane, C. G., 1972, Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelets. The role of IgE, basophils, and platelet-activating factor, J. Exp. Med. 136:1356–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benveniste, J., Le Couedic, J. P., Polonsky, J., and Tence, M., 1977, Structural analysis of purified platelet-activating factor by lipases, Nature 269:170–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benveniste, J., Tence, M., Varenne, P., Bidault, J., Boullet, C., and Polonsky, J., 1979, Semi-synthese et structure purposee du facteur activant les plaquettes (P.A.F.); PAF-acether, un alkyl ether analogue de la lysophosphatidylcholine, C. R. Acad. Sci. [D], (Paris) 289:1037–1040.Google Scholar
  4. Blank, M. L., Snyder, F., Byers, L. W., Brooks B., and Muirhead, E. E., 1979, Antihypertensive activity of an alkyl ether analog of phosphatidylcholine, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 90:1194–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carter, H. E., Smith, D. B., and Jones, D. N., 1958, A new ethanolamine-containing lipide from egg yolk, J. Biol. Chem. 232:681–694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dawson, R. M. C., Hemington, N., and Davenport, J. B., 1962, Improvements in the method of determining individual phospholipids in a complex mixture by successive chemical hydrolyses, Biochem. J. 84:497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Demopoulos, C. A., Pinckard, R. N., and Hanahan, D. J., 1979, Platelet-activating factor. Evidence for l-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-5«-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine as the active component (a new class of lipid chemical mediators), J. Biol. Chem. 254:9355–9358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanahan, D. J., Demopoulos, C. A., Liehr J., and Pinckard, R. N., 1980, Identification of platelet activating factor isolated from rabbit basophils as acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine, J. Biol Chem. 255:5514–5516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Heilbron, I. M., and Owens, W. M., 1928, The unsaponifiable matter from the oils of elasmobranch fish. Part IV. The establishment of the structure of selachyl and batyl alcohols as monoglyceryl ethers, J. Chem. Soc. ,p. 942–947.Google Scholar
  10. Kater, L. A., Goetzl, E. J., and Austen, K. F., 1976, Isolation of human eosinophil phospholipase D, J. Clin. Invest. 57:1173–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Muirhead, E. E., 1980, Antihypertensive functions of the kidney: Arthur C. Corcoran memorial lecture, Hypertension 2:444–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Muirhead, E. E., Jones, F., and Stirman, J. A., 1960, Antihypertensive property in renoprival hypertension of extract from renal medulla, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 56:167–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Muirhead, E. E., Leach, B. E., Byers, L. W., Brooks, B. Daniels, E. G., and Hinman, J. W., 1971, Antihypertensive renomedullary lipids (ANRL), in: Kidney Hormones ,(J. W. Fisher, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 485–506.Google Scholar
  14. Muirhead, E. E., Leach, B. E., Bycrs, L. W., and Brooks, B., 1976, Enhanced potency of depressor renomedullary lipid, Circulation 54:11–175 (Abstr. 0683),Google Scholar
  15. Pietruszko, R., and Gray, G. M., 1962, The products of mild alkaline and mild acid hydrolysis of plasmalogens, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 56:232–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pinckard, R. N., Farr, R. S., and Hanahan, D. J., 1979, Physicochemical and functional identity of rabbit platelet-activating factor (PAF) released in vivo during IgE anaphylaxis with PAF released in vitro from IgE sensitized basophils, J. Immunol. 123:1847–1857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Prewitt, R. L., Leach, B. E., Byers, L. W., Brooks, B., Lands, W. E. M., and Muirhead, E. E., 1979, Antihypertensive polar renomedullary lipid, a semisynthetic vasodilator, Hypertension 1:299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Renkonen, O., 1962, Lecithins of glycerol ether character in normal human serum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 59: 497–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Renooij, W., Wykle, R. L., Blank, M. L., Lee, T-C., Malone, B., Fitzgerald, V., and Snyder, F., 1980, Metabolism of l-alkyl-2-acetoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, an antihypertensive phospholipid, Fed. Proc. 39:2187 (Abstr. 3059).Google Scholar
  20. Snyder, F., Malone, B., and Wykle, R. L., 1969, The biosynthesis of alkyl ether bonds in lipids by a cell-free system, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34:40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Snyder, F., Lee, T-C., and Wykle, R. L., 1985, Ether-linked glycerolipids and their bioactive species: enzymes and metabolic regulation, in: The Enzymes of Biological Membranes ,(A. N. Martonosi, ed.), Vol. 2, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Toyama, Y., 1924a, Oleic alcohol, Chem. Umschau 31:13–17.Google Scholar
  23. Toyama, Y., 1924b, Unsaponifiable constituents (higher alcohol) of shark and ray-liver oil, III. Chem. Umschau 31:61–70.Google Scholar
  24. Toyama, Y., 1924c, Unsaponifiable constituents (higher alcohol) of shark and ray-liver oil, IV. Chem. Umschau 31:153–155.Google Scholar
  25. Tsujimoto, M., and Toyama, Y., 1922, The unsaponifiable constituents (higher alcohol) of the liver oil of sharks and rays, Chem. Umschau 29:27–29, 43–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fred Snyder
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical and Health Sciences DivisionOak Ridge Associated UniversitiesOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations