Induction of Chromosome Aberrations and Malignant Transformation in Different Cell Lines by Photons and Monoenergetic Neutrons
The relations among different types of cellular effects, i. e. cell reproductive death, chromosome aberrations and malignant transformation caused by ionizing radiation of different quality are essential in studies of mechanisms in radiobiology.
The induction of cell reproductive death and of chromosome aberrations (primarily dicentrics and centric rings) were studied in three lines of mammalian cells (R-1,M; RUC-2 and V-79). Cell survival curves and dose-effect relations for transformation were investigated in C3H/10T1/2 cells. In addition, some information is provided on the use of induction of chromosome aberrations in (human) peripheral lymphocytes as a biological dosimetry system in case of total body irradiation.
For studies on chromosome aberrations, irradiations of plateau phase cultures containing 70 to 80 percent of cells in the G0 or prolonged G1 phase were carried out with 137Cs γ rays, 300 kV X-rays and 0.5, 4.2, and 15 MeV neutrons. The data on cell transformation were obtained for the same neutron energies and 300 kV X-rays and the results pertain to standardized value of 103 clonogenic cells per culture flask of 25 cm2 area.
The dose-response relationships were analyzed for neutrons in terms of a linear dose coefficient only, while the results for photons required analysis in terms of linear and quadratic coefficients. The effectiveness pe unit of dose for cell inactivation is greater than that for the induction of dicentrics and centric rings by factors of about 5 to 9. These factors are relatively constant within one cell line. Correction for cells in other phases than G0, G1, and including acentric fragments in the scoring of chromosome aberrations, results in ratios for induction of cell reproductive death to induction of gross chromosome aberrations of 1.2 to 1.6. Cell transformation is induced much less frequently than cell reproductive death. The ratios of corresponding linear dose coefficients are in the order of 10−3.
The largest relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are found for 0.5 MeV neutrons, which range at low doses from 8 to 13 for all types of effect investigated. For 4.2 and 15 MeV neutrons the low dose RBE values are about 4 to 9 and 3 to 6, respectively. The RBE values for the R-1,M cells are lower than for the relatively resistant V-79 and RUC-2 cells.
KeywordsChromosome Aberration Linear Energy Transfer Centric Ring Relative Biological Effectiveness Fission Neutron
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