Receptor-Receptor Interactions in the Modulation of Nicotinic Receptors in Adrenal Medulla
Many important studies directed to clarify the molecular nature of nicotinic receptor function were carried out using chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla as a model. Such a selection was motivated by the convenience of evaluating nicotinic receptor function through a simple measurement of the catecholamines that are released from either perfused adrenal gland or primary cultures of bovine chromaffin cells. For many years, the background rationale for all these studies included the tacit assumption that the release of catecholamines from chromaffin cells was exclusively regulated by acetylcholine (ACh) which was believed to be the only chemical signal released from splanchnic nerves that acts on nicotinic receptors of adrenal chromaffin cells. Moreover, it was believed that the exclusive function of chromaffin cells was the synthesis, storage and secretion of catecholamines. This simple model has been challenged by the discovery in adrenal chromaffin tissues and in their afferent neurons of a number of additional neuromodulators, including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (Kataoka et al., 1984, Alho et al., 1985), substance P (Mizobe et al., 1979), enkephalins (Schultzberg et al., 1978, Yang et al., 1980) and NPY (Majane et al., 1985). The aim of the present paper is to reevaluate many of the literature’s tenets on nicotinic receptor function that resulted from an oversimplistic model of cholinergic transmission.
KeywordsChromaffin Cell Nicotinic Receptor Adrenal Medulla Opioid Peptide Splanchnic Nerve
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Alho, H., Fujimoto, M., Guidotti, A., Hanbauer, I., Kataoka, Y. and Costa, E, 1985, Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the adrenal medulla: location, pharmacology and applications, in: Neurology and Neurobiology, ed., Pannula, Pavarinta, Soinila, Vol. 16, pp. 453–464, Alaskan, New York.Google Scholar
- Bormann, J. and Clapham, D.E., 1985, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor channels in adrenal chromaffin cells: A patch clamp study, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82: 2168–2172.Google Scholar
- Haring, Stahli, C., Schoch, B., Takacs, B., Staehelin, T. and Mohler, H., 1985, Monoclonal antibodies reveal structural homogeneity of γ-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptors in different brain areas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82: 4837–4841.Google Scholar
- Higuchi, H., Costa, E. and Yang, H-Y.T., 1986, Inhibition of catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cells by neuropeptide Y and specific binding of N-[pripionyl-3H] neuropeptide Y in bovine adrenal membrane, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., in press.Google Scholar
- Higuchi, H., Yang, H-Y.T. and Costa, E., 1986, Age-related change in neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive peptides in rat adrenal glands, brains and blood, MoI. Pharmacol. 1986, in press.Google Scholar
- Hilton, J.G., Weaver, D.C., Muelheims, C., Glaviano, V.V. and Wegria, R., 1958, Perfusion of the isolated adrenals in situ, Am. J. Physiol. 192: 525–530.Google Scholar
- Kataoka, Y., Gutman, Y., Guidotti, A., Pannula, P., Wroblewski, J., Cosenza-Murphy, D., W.V. J.Y. and Costa, E., 1984, Intrinsic GABAergic system of adrenal chromaffin cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81: 3218–3222.Google Scholar
- Kataoka, Y., Fujimoto, M., Alho, H., Guidotti, A., Geffard, M., Kelly, G.D. and Hanbauer, I., 1986, Intrinsic GABA receptors modulate the release of catecholamines from canine adrenal gland in situ, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., in press.Google Scholar
- Pannula, P., Yang, H-Y.T., Costa, E., 1984, Coexistence of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 with Met5-enkephalin and the possible role of Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7 in neuronal function, in: Coexistence of Neuroactive substances in Neurons, V. Chan-Palay and S.L. Palay ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 113–126, 1984.Google Scholar
- Stephenson, F.A., Casalotti, 0., Mamalaki, C. and Barnard, E.A., 1986, Antibodies recognising the GABAA/Benzodiazepine receptor including its regulatory sites, J. Neurochem. 46: 854–861.Google Scholar