The Mechanisms of Action of Norepinephrine and Acetylcholine on the Heart: Role of Protein Phosphorylation

  • H. Criss Hartzell

Abstract

The heart does not beat with the same frequency or force all the time: the heartbeat is constantly regulated by various neurotransmitters and hormones. In particular, norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nervous system causes an increase in the frequency and force of contraction, whereas acetylcholine (ACh) has the opposite effects. During the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which neurotransmitters produce their effects on heart has increased significantly, but at the same time it has become clear that these mechanisms are extremely complicated. The effects of NE and ACh are mediated through a variety of different effector systems including several kinds of ionic channels in the plasma membrane, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the contractile apparatus. The purpose of this review is to summarize how these various systems interact to regulate cardiac contraction.

Keywords

Norepinephrine Turbidity Catecholamine Cardiol Acetylcholine 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Criss Hartzell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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