Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase and Biotin-containing Proteins in Carrot Somatic Embryogenesis

  • Basil J. Nikolau
  • J. Croxdale
  • T. H. Ulrich
  • E. S. Wurtele


Somatic embryogenesis in carrots is induced by transferring carrot cultures from a maintenance medium (containing the auxin 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D)) into an inductive medium lacking the auxin 2, 4-D1. In maintenance medium, the culture contains embryogenically incompetent cells and embryogenic cell clusters. Embryogenically incompetent cells are typically large and highly vacuolated and divide but do not undergo somatic embryogenesis in our inductive medium. The embryogenic clusters are composed of 5–15 small, cytoplasmically rich cells which, upon induction, undergo the process of somatic embryogenesis, developing sequentially through globular, heart, torpedo and germinating embryo stages.


Somatic Embryogenesis Inductive Medium Maintenance Medium Globular Embryo Maintenance Culture 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Halperin, W., and D.F. Wetherell, Adventive embryony in tissue cultures of the wild carrot Daucus carota, Amer. J. Bot. 51, 274 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fujimura, T., and A. Komamine, Synchronization of somatic embryogenesis in a carrot cell suspension culture, Plant Physiol. 64, 162 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Giulino, G., D. Rosellini, and M. Terzi, A new method for the purification of the different stages of carrot embryoids, Plant Cell Rep. 2, 216 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warren, G.S., and M. Fowler, Physical method for the separation of various stages in the embryogenesis of carrot cell cultures, Plant Sci. Lett. 9, 71 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nikolau, B.J., E.S. Wurtele, and P.K. Stumpf, Use of streptavidin to detect biotin-containing proteins in plants, Anal. Biochem. 149, 488 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nikolau, B.J., E.S. Wurtele, and P.K. Stumpf, Tissue distribution of acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase in leaves, Plant Physiol. 75, 895 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nikolau, B.J., E.S. Wurtele, and P.K. Stumpf, Subcellular distribution of acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase in mesophyll cells of barley and sorghum leaves, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 235, 555 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nikolau, B.J., and J.C. Hawke, Purification and characterization of maize leaf acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 228, 86 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charles, D.J., P.M. Hasegawa, and J.H. Cherry, Characterization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the seed of two soypean genotypes, Phytochem. 25, 55 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Slabas, A.R., and A. Hellyer, Rapid purification of a higher molecular wieght subunit polypeptide form of rape seed acetyl-CoA carboxylase Plant Sci. Lett. 39, 177 (1985).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Egin-Buhler, B., and J. Ebel, Improved purification and further characterization of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum hortense), Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 335 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wood, H.G., and R.E. Barden, Biotin enzymes, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 46, 385 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basil J. Nikolau
    • 1
  • J. Croxdale
    • 2
  • T. H. Ulrich
    • 1
  • E. S. Wurtele
    • 1
  1. 1.NPISalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Botany Dept.University of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations