Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Carotenogenic Enzymes in Plastids

  • Hans Kleinig


Within plant cells carotenoids are synthesized exclusively in three types of plastids (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and etioplasts) from the general prenyllipid precursor isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). In this brief review I shall tackle three points of view, the formation or cellular compartmentation of formation, respectively, of the precursor IPP, the carotenogenic enzymes in chromoplasts and the carotenogenic enzymes in other plastids.


Carotenoid Biosynthesis Othar Hand Mevalonate Kinase Isopentenyl Diphosphate Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T. W. Goodwin, and E.J. Mercer, Symp. Biochem. Soc. 24: 37 (1963).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.J. Rogers, S.P.J. Shah, and T.W. Goodwin, Intracellular localization of mevalonate-activating enzymes in plant cells. Biochem.J. 99: 381 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L.J. Rogers, S.P.J. Shah, and T. W. Goodwin, Mevalonate-kinase isoenzymes in plant cells. Biochem.J. 100: 14c (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.J. Wong, D. K. McCormack, and D. W. Russell, Plastid 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary 1 coenzyme A reductase has distinctive kinetic and regulatory features: properties of the enzyme and positive phytochrome control of activity in pea seedlings. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 216: 631 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.J. Bach, and H.K. Lichtenthaler, Inhibition by mevinolin of plant growth, sterol formation and pigment accumulation. Physiol. Plant. 59: 50 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Bickel, and G. Schultz, Biosynthesis of plastoquinone and ß-carotene in isolated chloroplasts. Phytochem. 15: 1253 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.E. Arebalo, and E.D. Mitchell, Cellular distribution of 3-hydroxy-3-methyIglutary1 coenzyme A reductase and meva-lonate kinase in leaves of Nepeta cataria. Phytochem. 23. 13 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.C. Gray, and R.G.O. Kekwick, Mevalonate kinase in green leaves and etiolated cotyledons of the french bean Phaseolus vulgaris. Biochem.J. 133: 335 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Kreuz, and H. Kleinig, On the compartmentation of isopentenyl diphosphate synthesis and utilization in plant cells. Planta 153: 578 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Kreuz, and H. Kleinig, Synthesis of prenyl lipids in cells of spinach leaf. Compartmentation of enzymes for formation of isopentenyl diphosphate. Eur.J. Biochem. 141: 531 (1984).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Lütke-Brinkhaus, B. Liedvogel, and H. Kleinig, On the biosynthesis of ubiquinones in plant mitochondria. Eur.J. Biochem. 141: 537 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Mohr, Control of chloroplast development by light — some recent aspects, in: “Photosynthesis V. Chloroplast Development”, G. Akoyunoglou, ed., Balaban International Science Service, Philadelphia (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.E. Gregornis, and H.C. Rilling, The stereochemistry of transphytoene synthesis. Some observations on lycopersene as a carotene precursor and a mechanism for the synthesis of eis-and trans-phytoene. Biochemistry 13: 1538 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. Maudinas, M.L. Bucholtz, C. Papastephanou, S.S. Katiyar, A. V. Briedis, and J.W. Porter, The partial purification and properties of a phytoene synthesizing enzyme system. Arch. Biochem.Biophys. 180: 354 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.A. Spurgeon, N. Sathyamoorthy, and J.W. Porter, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase and prenyltransferase from tomato fruit plastids. Arch. Biochem.Biophys. 230: 446 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Maudinas, M.L. Bucholtz, C. Papastephanou, S.S. Katiyar, A. V. Briedis, J.W. Porter, Adenosine 5′-triphosphate stimulation of the activity of a partially purified phytoene synthase complex. Biochim.Biophys.Res.Commun. 66: 430 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Beyer, K. Kreuz, and H. Kleinig, ß-Carotene synthesis in isolated chromoplasts from Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Planta 150: 435 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Kreuz, P. Beyer, and H. Kleinig, The site of carotenogenic enzymes in chromoplasts from Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Planta 154: 66 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Camara, F. Bardat, and R. Monéger, Sites of biosynthesis of carotenoids in Capsicum chromoplasts. Eur. J. Biochem. 127: 255 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Camara, O. Dogbo, A. d’ Harlingue, and F. Bardat, Inhibition of lycopene cyclization from Capsicum chromoplast membranes by 2-aza-2, 3-dihydrosqualene. Phytochem. 24: 2751 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Camara, O. Dogbo, A. d’ Harlingue, H. Kleinig, and R. Monéger, Metabolism of plastid terpenoids: lycopene cyclization by Capsicum chromoplast membranes. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 836: 262 (1985).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Beyer, G. Weiss, and H. Kleinig, Solubilization and reconstitution of the membrane-bound carotenogenic enzymes from daffodil chromoplasts. Eur.J. Biochem. 153: 341 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Lütke-Brinkhaus, B. Liedvogel, K. Kreuz, and H. Kleinig, Phytoene synthase and phytoene dehydrogenase associated with envelope membranes from spinach chloroplasts. PLanta 156: 176 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Steinmüller, A. Batschauer, E. Mössinger, E. Schäfer, S.K. Rasmussen, and K. Apel, The light-induced greening of barley, in: “Molecular Form and Function of the Plant Genome”, L. van Vloten-Doting, G.S.P. Groot, T.C. Hall, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1986).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Kleinig
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Biologie IIUniversität FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations