Living with Chronic Disease: The Importance of Cognitive Appraisal

  • Dennis Turk
  • Thomas Rudy


The plight of the chronically ill patient covers a wide array of potential life interruptions and psychological changes as well as illness-related factors such as permanent changes in physical functioning and in physical appearance. Patients with various chronic illnesses may face separation from families, friends, and other sources of gratification, the loss of social and vocational roles, disruption of plans for the future, assaults on self-image and self-esteem, uncertain and unpredictable futures, and distressing emotional reactions (Turk, 1979). Moreover, by nature of the disease, chronic illnesses unlike acute diseases have an extended time course of months or years with repeated demands recurring throughout the adjustment process.


Social Support Chronic Illness Coping Style Depressive Symptomatology Chronic Pain Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramson, L. Y., Seligman, M. E. P., &Teasdale, J. P. (1978). Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., &Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M., &Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binik, Y. M. (1983). Coping with chronic life-threatening illness: Psychosocial perspectives on end-stage renal disease. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 15, 373–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks, N. A., &Matson, R. R. (1982). Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 2129–2135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brownell, A., &Shumaker, S. A. (Eds.). (1984). Social support: New perspectives in theory, research, and intervention. Part 1. Theory and research. Journal of Social Issues, 40, (Whole Issue), -138.Google Scholar
  10. Bukberg, J., Penman, D., &Holland J. C. (1984). Depression in hospitalized cancer patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, 199–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cassileth, B. R., Lusk, E. J., Strouse, T. B., Miller, D. S., Brown, L. L., Cross, P. A., &Tenaglia, A. N. (1984). Psychosocial status in chronic illness: A comparative analysis of six diagnostic groups. New England Journal of Medicine, 311, 506–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, R., &Lazarus, R. S. (1979). Coping with the stress of illness. In G. C. Stone, F. Cohen, &N. E. Adler (Eds.), Health psychology -A handbook (pp. 217–254). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, S., &Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Comstock, G. W., &Helsing, K. J. (1976). Symptoms of depression in two communities. Psychological Medicine, 6, 551–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Devins, G. M., Binik, Y. M., Gorman, P., Dattel, M., McCloskey, B., Oscar, G., &Briggs, J. (1982). Perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and negative mood states in end-stage renal disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 ,241–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Devins, G. M., Binik, Y. M., Hollomby, D. J., Barré, P. E., &Guttmann, R. D. (1981). Helplessness and depression in end-stage renal disease. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 531–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Devins, G. M., Binik, Y. M., Hutchinson, T. A., Hollomby, D. J., Barre, P. E., &Gutmann, R. D. (1983-1984). The emotional impact of end-stage renal disease: Importance of patients’ perceptions of intrusiveness and control. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 13, 327–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., et al. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferster, C. B. (1973). A functional analysis of depression. American Psychologist, 28, 857–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hathaway, S. R., &McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota multiphasic personality schedule. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  22. Joreskog, K. G., &Sorbom, D. (1981). LISREL _V: Analysis of linear structural relationships by maximum likelihood and least squares methods. Chicago: International Educational Services.Google Scholar
  23. Kanfer, F. H. (1970). Self-regulation: Research issues and speculations. In C. Neuringer, &J. L. Michael (Eds.), Behavior modification in clinical psychology (pp. 178–220). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  24. Kaplan, B. H., Cassel, J., &Gore, S. (1977). Social support and health. Medical Care, 15, 47–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kerns, R. D., Turk, D. C., &Rudy. T. E. (1985). The West Haven-Yale multidimensional pain inventory. Pain, 23, 345–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Lazarus, R. S. (1974). Psychological stress and coping in adaptation and illness. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 5, 321–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lazarus, R. S., &Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Lazarus, R. S., &Launier, R. (1978). Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In L. A. Pervin &M. Lewis (Eds.), Perspectives in interactional psychology, New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  30. Lewinsohn, P. M. (1974). Clinical and theoretical aspects of depression. In K. S. Calhoun, H. E. Adams, &K. R. Mitchell (Eds.), Innovative treatment methods in psychopathology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Linn, L. S., &Greenfield, S. (1982). Patients suffering and patient satisfaction among the chronically ill. Medical Care, 20, 425–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lubin, B. (1965). Adjective checklists for measurement of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  34. Meichenbaum, D., Turk, D. C., &Burstein, S. (1975). The nature of coping with stress. In I. G. Sarason &C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 2, pp. 337–360). Washington: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  35. Melzack, R. (1975). The McGill pain questionnaire: Major properties and scoring methods. Pain, 1, 277–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moffic, H., &Paykel, E. S. (1975). Depression in medical inpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 346–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murray, H. A. (1943). Thematic apperception test: Pictures and manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Rehm, L. P. (1977). A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy, 8, 787–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Romano, J. M., &Turner, J. A. (1985). Chronic pain and depression: Does the evidence support a relationship? Psychological Bulletin» 97, 18–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schulz, R., &Decker, S. (1985). Long-term adjustment to physical disability: The role of social support, perceived control, and self-blame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1162–1172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  42. Tattersall, R. B. (1981). Psychiatric aspects of diabetes -A physician’s view. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 485–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Turk, D. C. (1979). Factors influencing the adaptive process with chronic illness: Implications for intervention. In I. G. Sarson &C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 6, pp. 291–311). Washington: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  44. Turk, D. C., Kerns, R. D., &Rudy, T. E. (1985). Identifying the links between chronic illness and depression. Research in Education, Abstract No. ED 250645.Google Scholar
  45. Turk, D. C., Meichenbaum, D., &Genest, M. (1983). Pain and behavioral medicine: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  46. Turk, D. C., &Rudy, T. E. (1985). Predictors of dysphoric mood among diabetics. Diabetes Care.Google Scholar
  47. Turk, D. C., Sobel, H. J., Follick, M. J., &Youkilis, H. D. (1980). A sequential criterion analysis for assessing coping with chronic illness. Journal of Human Stress, 6, 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Turner, R. J., Noh, S., &Levin, D. M. (1985). Depression across the life course -The significance of psychosocial factors among the physically disabled. In A. Dean (Ed.), Depression in multidisciplinary perspective (pp. 32–59). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  49. Visotsky, H. M., Hamburg, D. A., Goss, M. F., &Lebovits, B. Z. (1961). Coping behavior under extreme stress. Archives of General Psychiatry, 5, 423–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wallston, F. A., Wallston, B. S., &DeVellis, R. (1978). Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales. Health Education Monographs, 6, 160–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Westbrook, M. T., &Viney, L. L. (1982). Psychological reactions to the onset of chronic illness. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 899–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis Turk
    • 1
  • Thomas Rudy
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and AnesthesiologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations