Advertisement

Self-Control Skills for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

  • Marvin R. Goldfried

Abstract

The concept of “self-control” initially appeared in the psychological literature in the early 1950s, when Skinner (1953) devoted an entire chapter to the topic in Science and Human Behavior. To a very large extent, Skinner’s conceptualization of self-control provided a general backdrop against which much of the work in the 1970s and the more contemporary work in the 1980s that has been carried out. In particular, Skinner made a very helpful distinction between the “controlling response” and the “controlled response”. The essential difference between the two is that individuals are able to emit a behavior or a pattern of behavior over which they have control — the controlling response — in order to change the probability of another, typically problematic behavior pattern over which they lack direct control — the controlled response.

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Coping Skill Test Anxiety Cognitive Restructuring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 287–308.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Carmody, T. P. (1978). Rational-emotive, self-instructional, and behavioral assertion training: Facilitating maintenance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 2, 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cautela, J. R. (1966). A behavior therapy approach to pervasive anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davison, G. C. (1968). Systematic desensitization as a counter-conditioning process. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 91–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davison, G. C., Tsujimoto, R. N., & Glaros, A. G. (1973). Attribution and the maintenance of behavior change in falling asleep. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 124–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deffenbacher, J. L., & Suinn, R. M. (1982). The self-control of anxiety. In P. Karoly & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Self-management and behavior change (pp. 393–442). Elmsford, N. Y.: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  11. Geer, J. H., Davison, G. C., & Gatchel, R. J. (1970). Reduction of stress in humans through noveridical perceived control of aversive stimulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 731–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glass, C. R., Gottman, J. M., & Shmurak, S. H. (1976). Response acquisition and cognitive self-statement modification approaches to dating skills training. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 23, 520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glass, D. C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress, and coronary disease. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Glass, D. C., Singer, J. E., & Friedman, L. N. (1969). Psychic cost of adaptation to an environmental stressor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12, 200–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goldfried, M. R. (1971). Systematic desensitization as training in self-control. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 228–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldfried, M. R. (1976). Self-modification of anxiety: Client instructions. New York: BMA Cassette Tapes.Google Scholar
  17. Goldfried, M. R. (1977). The use of relaxation and cognitive relabeling as coping skills. In R. B. Stuart (Ed.), Behavioral self-management: Strategies, techniques and outcomes (pp. 82–116). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  18. Goldfried, M. R. (1979). Anxiety reduction through cognitive-behavioral intervention. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures (pp. 117–152). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G. C. (1976). Clinical behavior therapy. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  20. Goldfried, M. R., Decenteceo, E. T., & Weinberg, L. (1974). Systematic rational restructuring as a self-control technique. Behavior Therapy, 5, 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goldfried, M. R., & Goldfried, A. P. (1977). Importance of hierarchy content on the self-control of anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 124–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Goldfried, M. R., & Padawer, W., & Robins, C. (1984). Social anxiety and the semantic structure of heterosocial interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldfried, M. R., & Robins, C. (1983). Self-schema, cognitive bias, and the processing of therapeutic experiences. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. II, pp. 33–80). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Goldfried, M. R., & Trier, C. S. (1974). Effectiveness of relaxation as an active coping skill. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 348–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grimm, L. G. (1980). The evidence for cue-controlled relaxation. Behavior Therapy, 11, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobson, E. (1929). Progressive relaxation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Jenni, M. A., & Wollersheim, J. P. (1979). Cognitive therapy, stress management training and the Type A behavior pattern. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 3, 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanter, N. J., & Goldfried, M. R. (1979). Relative effectiveness of rational restructuring and self-control desensitization in the reduction of interpersonal anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 10, 472–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lang, P. J. (1969). The mechanics of desensitization and the laboratory study of human fear. In C. M. Franks (Ed.), Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status (pp. 160–191). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  31. Lang, P. J., Lazovik, A. D., & Reynolds, D. J. (1965). Desensitization, suggestibility, and pseudotherapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Langer, E. J., & Rodin, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lazarus, A. A. (1971). Behavior therapy and beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  34. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  35. Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). Locus of control (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Linehan, M., Goldfried, M. R., & Goldfried, A. P. (1979). Assertion training: Skill acquisition or cognitive restructuring. Behavior Therapy, 10), 372–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Mass: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  38. Marks, I. (1987). Exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders. In B.F. Shaw, Z.V. Segal, T.M. Vallis, & F.E. Cashman (Eds.), Anxiety disorders: Psychological and biological perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Meichenbaum, D. H. (1972). Cognitive modification of test anxious college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 370–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meichenbaum, D. H. (1977). Cognitive behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  41. Paul, G. L., & Shannon, D. T. (1966). Treatment of anxiety through systematic desensitization. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 71, 124–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rachman, S. (1965). Studies in desensitization — — I: The separate effects of relaxation and desensitization. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 3, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rachman, S. (1978) (Ed.). Perceived self-efficacy: Analysis of Bandura’s theory of behavioral change. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 139–269.Google Scholar
  44. Rodin, J., & Langer, E. J. (1977). Long-term effects of a control-relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 897–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roskies, E. (1983). Stress management for Type A individuals. In D. Meichenbaum & M. Jaremko (Eds.), Stress reduction and prevention. (pp. 261–285). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  46. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, R. E. (1972). Social anxiety as a moderator variable in the attitude similarity-attraction relationship. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 6, 22–28.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, R. E., & Sarason, I. G. (1975). Social anxiety and the evaluation of negative interpersonal feedback. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suinn, R. M., & Richardson, F. (1971). Anxiety management training: A nonspecific behavior therapy program for anxiety control. Behavior Therapy, 2, 498–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Trexler, L. D., & Karst, T. O. (1972). Rational-emotive therapy, placebo, and no-treatment effects on public-speaking anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 79, 60–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Turk, D. C., & Speers, M. A. (1983). Cognitive schemata and cognitive processes in cognitive behavior modification: Going beyond the information given. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (Vol. 2, pp. 3–34). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  52. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilson, G. T. (1987). Psychosocial treatment of anxiety disorders. In B.F. Shaw, Z.V. Segal, T.M. Vallis, & F.E. Cashman (Eds.), Anxiety disorders: Psychological and biolgoical perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  54. Winfrey, L. P. L., and Goldfried, M. R. (1986). Information processing and the human change process. In R. F. Ingram (Ed.), Information processing approaches to psychopathology and clinical psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  55. Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Zeisset, R. M. (1968). Desensitization and relaxation in the modification of psychiatric patients’ interview behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 18–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marvin R. Goldfried
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of New York at Stony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations