Advertisement

Double-Stranded RNA and Hypovirulence of Endothia Parasitica

  • Neal K. Van Alfen
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 40)

Abstract

The concept of biological control as a means of reducing the impact of disease or pest losses is an appealing one. The realization that the chemicals traditionally used to control pests can accumulate and have an adverse impact on the environment has created an interest in biological control as an alternative method of reducing the impact of pests. Biological control, however, has not generally proven to be successful, particularly in controlling microbial pests of plants. The difficulty in controlling microbial pests is that such control is dependent upon the use of other microorganisms that act as either antagonists or competitors of the pest species. For this approach to be successful, the competitor must be better adapted to the environment than the pest. This is difficult to achieve outside the laboratory where environmental conditions are so variable. The failure rate of biological control strategies has discouraged their widespread use (4).

Keywords

Biological Control Filamentous Fungus Insertion Element American Chestnut Chestnut Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anagnostakis, S.L. (1984) Nuclear gene mutations in Endothia (Cryphonectria) parasitica that affect morphology and virulence. Phytopathology 74:561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anagnostakis, S.L., and P.R. Day (1979) Hypovirulence conversion in Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 69:1226–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anagnostakis, S.L., and P.E. Waggoner (1981) Hypovirulence, vegetative incompatibility, and the growth of cankers of chestnut blight. Phytopathology 71:1198–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker, K.F., and R.J. Cook (1974) Biological Control of Plant Pathogens, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biraghi, A. (1953) Possible active resistance to Endothia parasitica in Castanea sativa. In Report of the Congress of the International Union Forest Research Organization, 11th, Rome, pp. 643–645.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buck, K.W., M.R. Almond, J. J. P. McFadden, M.A. Romanos, and C.J. Rawlinson (1981) Properties of thirteen viruses and virus variants obtained from eight isolates of the wheat take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. J. Gen. Virol. 53:235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Day, P.R., J.A. Dodds, J.E. Elliston, R.A. Jaynes, and S.L. Anagnostakis (1977) Double-stranded RNA in Endothia parasitica. 67:1393–1396.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dodds, J.A. (1980) Association of type 1 viral-like dsRNA with club-shaped particles in hypovirulent strains of Endothia parasitica. Virology 107:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dodds, J.A. (1980) Revised estimates of the molecular weights of dsRNA segments in hypovirulent strains of Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 70:1217–1220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Elliston, J.E. (1978) Pathogenicity and sporulation of normal and diseased strains of Endothia parasitica in American chestnut. In Proceedings of the American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Books, Morgantown, West Virginia, pp. 95–100.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elliston, J.E. (1985) Characteristics of dsRNA-free and dsRNA-contain-ing strains of Endothia parasitica in relation to hypovirulence. Phytopathology 75:151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elliston, J.E. (1985) Further evidence for two cytoplasmic hypovirulence agents in a strain of Endothia parasitica from Western Michigan. Phytopathology 75:1405–1413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fulbright, D.W. (1984) Effect of eliminating dsRNA in hypovirulent Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 74:722–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fulbright, D.W., W.H. Weidlich, K.Z. Haufler, C.S. Thomas, and C.P. Paul (1983) Chestnut blight and recovering American chestnut trees in Michigan. Can. J. Bot. 61:3164–3171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garrod, S.W., D.W. Fulbright, and A.V. Ravenscroft (1985) Dissemination of virulent and hypovirulent forms of a marked strain of Endothia parasitica in Michigan. Phytopathology 75:533–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grente, J., and S. Berthelay-Sauret (1978) Research carried out in France into diseases of the chestnut tree. In Proceedings of the American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Books, Morgantown, West Virginia, pp. 88–92.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grente, J., and S. Sauret (1969) L’ “hypovirulence exclusive” est-elle controlee par des determinants cytoplasmiques? C.R. Acad. Sci. (Series C) 268:3173–3176.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grente, J., and S. Sauret (1969) L’hypovirulence exclusion phenomene original en pathologi vegetale. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Series D) 268:2347–2350.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansen, D.R., N.K. Van Alfen, K. Gillies, and W.A. Powell (1985) Naked dsRNA associated with hypovirulence of Endothia parasitica is packaged in fungal vesicles. J. Gen. Virol. 66:2605–2614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hiremath, S., B. L’Hostis, S.A. Ghabrial, and R.E. Rhoads (1985) Sequence relationships among double-stranded RNA species of a hypoviru-lent strain of. the chestnut blight fungus Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 75:1325 (abstract).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jones, T.M., and P. Albersheim (1972) A gas chromatographic method for the determination of aldose and uronic acid constituents of plant cell wall polysaccharides. Plant Physiology 49:926–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lemke, P.A. (1979) Viruses and Plasmids in Fungi, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    L’Hostis, B., S.T. Hiremath, R.E. Rhoads, and S.A. Ghabrial (1985) Lack of sequence homology between double-stranded RNA from European and American hypovirulent strains of Endothia parasitica. J. Gen. Virol. 66:351–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newhouse, J.R., H.C. Hock, and W.L. MacDonald (1983) The ultrastructure of Endothia parasitica, comparison of a virulent with a hypoviru-lent isolate. Can. J. Bot. 61:389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paul, C.P., and D.W. Fulbright (1985) Homology relationships with Michigan hypovirulent strains of Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 75:1325 (abstract).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Puhalla, J.E., and S.L. Anagnostakis (1971) Genetics and nutritional requirements of Endothia parasitica. Phytopathology 61:169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Turchetti, T. (1978) Some observations on the “hypovirulence” of chestnut blight in Italy. In Proceedings of the American Chestnut Symposium, West Virginia University Books, Morgantown, West Virginia, pp. 92–94.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van Alfen, N.K., R.A. Jaynes, and J.T. Bowman (1978) Stability of Endothia parasitica in culture. Phytopathology 68:1075–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Van Alfen, N.K., R.A. Jaynes, S.L. Anagnostakis, and P.R. Day (1975) Chestnut blight: Biological control by transmissible hypovirulence in Endothia parasitica. Science 189:890–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wickner, R.B. (1981) Killer systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In The Molecular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces, J.N. Strathern, E.W. Jones, and J.R. Broach, eds. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 415–444.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neal K. Van Alfen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations