Influenza pp 229-251 | Cite as

Animal Influenza

Ecology and Disease
  • Edwin D. Kilbourne


Before influenza viruses were linked to human disease in 1933, viruses later recognized to be influenza viruses had been identified as the cause of fowl plague and swine influenza. Recovery of the virus from man depended on the susceptibility of the ferret to infection with human virus, although later the chick embryo became the principal experimental host. Thus, from the first, there was evidence that influenza A viruses could infect both avian and mammalian species. However, fowl plague virus appeared to be different not only in antigenic but in pathogenic character from swine and human viruses, so that the concept of host-specific avian and mammalian influenza viruses developed. That this concept is simplistic and overly restrictive has become apparent as ecological studies of the distribution of viruses in nature have been aided by the application of genetic and immunologic methods to their identification and classification. These efforts have been fired by an intense interest in the possible origin of human pandemic viruses from animal sources.


Influenza Virus Avian Influenza Avian Influenza Virus Swine Influenza Influenza Virus Infection 
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Copyright information

© Edwin D. Kilbourne, M.D. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin D. Kilbourne
    • 1
  1. 1.Mount Sinai School of MedicineCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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