Influenza pp 57-87 | Cite as

Replication of Influenza Viruses

  • Edwin D. Kilbourne


Initial studies of influenza virus replication were carried out in small animals (ferrets and mice) in which the human influenza viruses were first isolated and propagated. Exploration of host range demonstrated that virus could infect the respiratory tract of a wide variety of mammalian hosts. Infection of immunologically responsive hosts simulated human infection and provided valuable information about viral pathogenesis (see Chapter 8), but the quantitative biology of influenza began with the introduction of the chick embryo as an experimental host system (Burnet, 1940). The cells of the entodermal surface of the allantoic sac of the developing embryo provide a homogeneous layer of highly susceptible cells maintained under controlled environmental conditions. From these cells, 900–3000 virus particles per cell (Horsfall, 1955) are released into the allantoic sac, from which they are readily harvested after chilling of eggs to minimize hemorrhage into the clear allantoic fluid. The HA of virus produced in the allantoic sac is largely cleaved by endogenous proteases (Lazarowitz et al., 1971), and, therefore, the ratio of infective to noninfective virus particles is relatively high.


Influenza Virus Neuraminic Acid Abortive Infection Influenza Virus Replication Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin 
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Copyright information

© Edwin D. Kilbourne, M.D. 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin D. Kilbourne
    • 1
  1. 1.Mount Sinai School of MedicineCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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