Mass/Energy Gap Associated to Symmetry Breaking: A Generalized Goldstone Theorem for Long Range Interactions
Spontaneous breaking of continuous symmetries has become one of the most relevant phenomena in modern theoretical physics (elementary particles, many-body, statistical mechanics etc.) and a powerful method to get exact (non perturbative) information on the excitation spectrum of the system1. In the case of short range interactions the phenomenon has been essentially clarified by the so-called Goldstone theorem 2 and it has found significant applications in the theory of ferromagnetism (spin waves), superfluidity (Landau phonons), chiral symmetry breaking (current algebra) etc.
KeywordsSymmetry Breaking Range Interaction Goldstone Boson Short Range Interaction Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking
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