Advertisement

Some Perspectives on Ecological Modeling Focused on Upper Ocean Processes

  • Daniel Kamykowski
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 17)

Abstract

Biological processes clearly affect the often complex distributions of many chemical elements in the ocean. The biological processes, in turn, are inherently intricate and are variable in time and space due to environmental dependencies. Modeling provides a mechanism by which complex biological-environmental interactions can be studied. This potential is evident in the progress exhibited in the construction of biological-physical subsystem models in the last decade. Future progress in these models depends on an increased understanding of how the vertical motion affects the environmental exposure of plankton and on improved capabilities of real time and space biological parameterization. From the present perspective, the latter includes not only small scale responses due to planktonic physiology and behavior but also geographic differences in oceanographic conditions. Biologically oriented subsystem models provide a powerful tool when closely coupled with laboratory and field efforts that can contribute significantly to the elucidation of upper ocean chemistry.

Keywords

Internal Wave Silicic Acid Swimming Speed Internal Tide Subjective Contour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barber, R.T., and Smith, W.O., Jr., 1981, The role of circulation, sinking and vertical migration in physical sorting of phytoplankton in the upwelling center at 150C, in: “Coastal Upwelling”, F.A. Richards, ed., pp. 366–371, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowman, M.J., and Esaias, W.E., 1978, “Ocean Fronts in Coastal Processes”, Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brennen, C., and Winet, H., 1977, Fluid mechanics of propulsion by cilia and flagella, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 9:339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broecker, W.S., and Peng, T.H., 1982, “Tracers in the Sea”, Eldigio Press, Palisades.Google Scholar
  5. Cullen, J.J., and Horrigan, S.G., 1981, The effects of nitrate on the diurnal vertical migration, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and photosynthetic capacity of a dinoflagellate; Gymnodinium splendens, Mar. Biol., 62:81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cullen, J.J., Stewart, E., Renger, E., Reid, F.M.H., Eppley, R.W., and Winant, C.D., 1982, Vertical motion of the thermocline, nitra-cline and chlorophyll maximum layers in relation to currents on the Southern California shelf, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., 63:975.Google Scholar
  7. DiToro, D.M., Thomann, R.V., O’Connor, D.J., and Mancini, J.L., 1977, Estuarine phytoplankton biomass models - verification analyses and preliminary applications, in: “The Sea, Volume 6, Marine Modeling”, E.D. Goldberg, I.N. McCave, J.J. O’Brien and J.H. Steele, eds., pp.969–1020, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Evans, G.T., 1978, Biological effects of vertical-horizontal interactions, in: “Spatial Patterns in Plankton Communities”, J.H. Steele, ed., pp.157–179, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Evans, G.T., and Taylor, F.J.R., 1980, Phytoplankton associations in Langmuir cells, Limnol. Oceanogr., 25:840.Google Scholar
  10. Falkowski, P.G., and Wirick, C.D., 1981, A simulation model of the effects of vertical mixing on primary production, Mar. Biol., 65:69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forward, R.B., Jr., 1976, Light and diurnal vertical migration: Photobehaviour and photophysiology of plankton, Photochem. Photobiol. Rev., 1:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garside, C., 1982, Nitrate measurements in the oligotrophic photic zone, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., 63:995.Google Scholar
  13. Gittleson, S.M., Hotchkiss, S.K., and Valencia, F.G., 1974, Locomotion in the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae (Hulbert), Trans. Amer. Microscope Soc., 93:101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldberg, E.D., McCave, I.N., O’Brien, J.J., and Steele, J.H., eds, 1977, “The Sea, Volume 6, Marine Modeling”, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Goldman, J.C., 1977, Temperature effects on phytoplankton growth in continuous culture, Limnol. Oceanogr., 22:932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goldman, J.C., 1979, Temperature effects on the steady state growth, phosphorus uptake and chemical composition of a marine phytoplankton, Microbial Ecol., 5:153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gray, J., and Hancock, G.J., 1955, The movement of sea urchin spermatozoa, J. Exp. Biol., 32:802.Google Scholar
  18. Hand, W.G., Collard, P.A., and Davenport, D., 1965, The effect of temperature and salinity change on the swimming rate of the dinoflagellates, Gonyaulax and Gyrodinium, Biol. Bull., 128:90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harris, G.P., 1980, Temporal spatial scales in phytoplankton ecology. Mechanisms, methods and management, Can. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 37:877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haury, L.R., McGowan, J.A., and Wiebe, P.H., 1978, Plankton and processes in the time-space scales of plankton distributions, in: “Spatial Patterns in Plankton Communities”, J.H.Steele, ed., pp.277–328, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Heaney, S.I., and Talling, J.F., 1980, Dynamic aspects of dinoflagellate distribution pattern in a small productive lake, J. Ecol., 68:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Herman, E.M., and Sweeney, B.M., 1976, Cachonina ilidefina sp. nov. (Dinophycea): chloroplast tubules and degeneration of the pyrenoid, J. Phycol., 12:198.Google Scholar
  23. Hoffman, E.E., Pietrafesa, L.J., Klinck, J.M., and Atkinson, L.P., 1980, A time-dependent model of nutrient distribution in continental shelf waters, Ecol. Modelling, 10:193.Google Scholar
  24. Holwill, M.E.J., 1977, Some biophysical aspects of ciliary and flagellar motility, Adv. Microbial Physiol., 16:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huthnance, J.M., 1981, Waves and currents near the continental shelf edge, Progr. Oceanogr., 10:193.Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, G.A., 1980, Phytoplankton growth and zooplankton grazing in oligotrophic oceans, Nature, Lond., 284:439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jamart, B.M., Winter, D.F., Banse, K., Anderson, G.C., and Lam, R.K., 1977, A theoretical study of phytoplankton growth and nutrient distribution in the Pacific Ocean off the northwestern U.S. coast, Deep-Sea Res., 24:753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamykowski, D., 1974, Possible interactions between phytoplankton and semi-diurnal internal tides, J. Mar. Res., 32:67.Google Scholar
  29. Kamykowski, D., 1976, Possible interactions between plankton and semi-diurnal internal tides. II Deep thermoclines and trophic effects, J. Mar. Res., 34:499.Google Scholar
  30. Kamykoweki, D., 1978, Organism patchiness in lakes resulting from the interaction between the internal seiche and plankton diurnal vertical migration, Ecol. Modelling, 4:197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kamykowski, D., 1979a, Comparison of the possible effects of internal seiches on the plankton population of selected lakes, in: “State-of-the Art in Ecological Modelling”, S.E. Jorjensen, ed., pp. 647–659, International Society of Ecological Modelling, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  32. Kamykowski, D., 1979b, The growth response of a model Gymnodinium splendens in stationary and wavy water columns, Mar. Biol., 50:289.Google Scholar
  33. Kamykowski, D., 1981a, The simulation of a Southern California red tide using characteristics of a simultaneously measured internal wave field, Ecol. Modelling, 12:253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kamykowski, D., 1981b, Laboratory experiments on the diurnal vertical migration of marine dinoflagellates through temperature gradients, Mar. Biol., 62:57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kamykowski, D., and Zentara, S.J., 1977, The diurnal vertical migration of motile phytoplankton through temperature gradients, Limnol. Oceanogr., 22:148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kofoid, C.A., and Swezy, O., 1921, The free-living unarmored dinoflagellates, Mem. Univ. California, 5:1.Google Scholar
  37. Ledbetter, M., 1979, Langmuir circulations and plankton patchiness, Ecol. Modelling, 7:284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Longhurst, A.R., ed., 1981, “Analysis of Marine Ecosystems”, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  39. Mack, T.P., Bajusz, B.A., Nolan, E.S., and Smilowitz, Z., 1981, Development of a temperature-mediated functional response equation, Envir. Entomol., 10:573.Google Scholar
  40. McCarthy, J.J., 1981, The kinetics of nutrient utilization, Can.Bull. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 210:211.Google Scholar
  41. McCarthy, J.J., and Goldman, J.C., 1979, Nitrogeneous nutrition of marine phytoplankton in nutrient-depleted waters, Science, N.Y., 203:670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Monin, A.S., Kamenkowich, V.M., and Kort, V.G., 1977, “Variability of the Oceans”, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Nihoul, J., 1977, “Modelling of Marine Systems”, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  44. Okubo, A., 1978, Horizontal dispersion and critical scales for phytoplankton patches, in: “Spatial Patterns in Plankton Communities”, J.H. Steele, ed., pp. 21–42, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Peters, N., 1929, Uber Orts-und Geisselbewegeing bei marinen Dinoflagellaten, Archiv. Protistenkd, 67:291.Google Scholar
  46. Platt, T., Mann, K.H., and Ulanowicz, R.E., 1981, “Mathematical Models in Biological Oceanography”, UNESCO Press, Paris.Google Scholar
  47. Quinby-Hunt, M.S., and Turekian, K.K., 1983, Distribution of elements in sea water, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., 64:130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radford, P.J., Joint, I.R., and Hibny, A.R., 1981, Simulation models of individual production processes, in: “Analysis of Marine Ecosystems”, A.R. Longhurst, ed., pp. 677–700, Academic.Press, London.Google Scholar
  49. Riley, G.A., 1976, A model of plankton patchiness, Limnol. Oceanogr., 21:873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ronkin, R.R., 1959, Motility and power dissipation in flagellated cells, especially Chlamydomonas, Biol. Bull., 116:285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Syrett, P.J., 1981, Nitrogen metabolism of microalgae, Can. Bull. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 210:182.Google Scholar
  52. Tilman, D., 1977, Resource competition between planktonic algae: an experimental and theoretical approach, Ecology, 58:338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tilman, D., Mattson, M., and Langer, S., 1981, Competitive and nutrient kinetics along a temperature gradient: An experimental test of a mechanistic approach to niche theory, Limnol. Oceanogr., 26:1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tilman, D., Kilham, S.S., and Kilham, P., 1982, Phytoplankton community ecology: The role of limiting nutrients, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Systematics, 13:349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tyler, M.A., and Seliger, H.H., 1981., Selection for a red tide organism: Physiological responses to the physical environment, Limnol. Oceanogr., 26:310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vinogradov, M.E., and Menshutkin, V.V., 1977, The modeling of open-sea ecosystems, in: “The Sea, Volume 6, Marine Modeling”, E.D. Goldberg, I.N McCave, J.J. O’Brien and J.H. Steele, eds, pp. 891–921, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Walsh, J.J., 1977, A biological sketchbook for an eastern boundary current, in: “The Sea, Volume 6, Marine Modeling”, E.D. Goldberg, I.N. McCave, J.J. O’Brien and J.H. Steele, eds, pp. 923–968, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Wood, E.J.F., 1968, “Dinoflagellates of the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Seas”, University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
  59. Woods, J.D., and Onken, R., 1982, Diurnal variation and primary production in the ocean-preliminary results of a Lagrangian ensemble model, J.Plankton Res., 4:735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wroblewski, J.S., 1977, A model of phytoplankton plume formation during variable Oregon upwelling, J.Mar.Res., 35:357.Google Scholar
  61. Wroblewski, J.S., 1980, A simulation of the distribution of Acartia clausi during Oregon upwelling, August 1973, J.Plankton Res., 2:43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zentara, S.-J., and Kamykowski, D., 1977, Latitudinal relationships among temperature and plant nutrients along the west coast of North and South America, J.Mar.Res., 35:321.Google Scholar
  63. Zentara, S.-J., and Xamykowski, D., 1981, Geographic variations in the relationship between silicic acid and nitrate in the South Pacific Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28:455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Kamykowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric SciencesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations