Intracellular Aspects of Ganglioside Metabolism and Transport
Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids particularly abundant in the nervous system and displaying a highly differentiated carbohydrate composition1. They are mainly located in the cell plasma membrane, and are asymmetrically disposed on the outer surface. Their hydrophobic portion (the ceramide) is inserted into the membrane layer and the oligosaccharide moiety protrudes on the membrane surface. Very small amounts of gangliosides are also present in intracellular compartments. These gangliosides are likely the expression of the transient forms moving from the site of biosynthesis to the plasma membrane or migrating from the plasma membrane to the site of degradation. Most of the information regarding ganglioside metabolism and intracellular transport pertains to brain gangliosides. However, important contributions to this topic were also provided by studies carried out on extraneural tissues, such as liver, spleen, kidney, mammary gland and thyroid, and on cultured cells, such as transformed and tumoral cells, and primary cultures of neural cells.
KeywordsSialic Acid Golgi Apparatus Chain Base Brain Ganglioside Terminal Galactose
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.R. W. Ledeen, Gangliosides, in: “Handbook of Neurochemistry,” A. Lajtha, ed., Vol. 3 (2nd Ed.), Plenum Publ. Corp., New York, pp. 41–90 (1983).Google Scholar
- 7.S. Basu and M. Basu, Expression of glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferases in development and transformation, in: “The Glycoconjugates,” M.I. Horowitz and W. Pigman, eds., Academic Press, New York, Vol. III, pp. 265–286 (1982).Google Scholar
- 10.G. Tettamanti, B. Venerando, S. Roberti, V. Chigorno, S. Sonnino, R. Ghidoni, P. Orlando, P. Massari, The fate of exogenously administered brain gangliosides, in: “Gangliosides in neurological and neuromuscular function, development and repair,” M. M. Rapport and A. Gorio, eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 225–240 (1981).Google Scholar
- 11.G. Tettamanti, R. Ghidoni, S. Sonnino, V. Chigorno, B. Venerando, A. Giuliani and A. Fiorilli, New approaches in the study of ganglioside metabolism, in: “Ganglioside structure, function, and biomedical potential”, R. W. Ledeen, R. K. Yu, M. M. Rapport and K. Zuzuki, eds., Plenum Push-Corp, New York, pp. 273–284 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.G. Tettamanti, R. Ghidoni, B. Venerando, A. Fiorilli and S. Sonnino, Intracellular aspects of ganglioside metabolism, in: “Cellular and Pathological Aspects of Glycoconjugate Metabolism,” H. Dreyfus, R. Massarelli, L. Freysz and G. Rebel, eds., INSERM, Paris, Vol. 126, pp. 135–150 (1984).Google Scholar
- 17.A. Rosenberg, Biosynthesis and metabolism of gangliosides, in: “Complex Carbohydrates of nervous Tissue,” R. U. Margolis and R. K. Margolis, eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 25–3 (1980).Google Scholar
- 20.L. Svennerholm, Structure and biology of cell membrane gangliosides, in: “Cholera and Related Diarrheas,” O. Ouchterlony and J. Holmgren, eds., S. Karger, Basel, pp. 80x2013;87 (1980).Google Scholar
- 27.R. W. Veh and M. Sander, Differentiation between ganglioside and sialyllactose sialidases in human tissues, in: “Sialidases and Sialidoses,” G. Tettamanti, P. Durand, and S. Di Donato, eds., Edi Ermes, Milan, Italy, pp. 71–109 (1981).Google Scholar
- 34.T. Sasaki, A. Abe, K. Yamada, T. Sakagami, R. Demel, Glycolipid transfer protein purified from pig brain: properties, lipid specificity, and mechanism of action, in: “Cellular and Pathological Aspects of Glycoconjugate Metabolism,” H. Dreyfus, R. Massarelli, L. Freysz and G. Rebel, eds., INSERM, Paris, Vol. 126, pp. 151–166.Google Scholar