Biosynthesis of Gangliosides and Blood Group Glycolipids Using Solubilized Glycosyltransferases

  • Subhash Basu
  • Manju Basu
  • Tripti De
  • John W. Kyle
  • Kamal K. Das
  • Robert J. Schaeper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 116)


Since the discovery of GM2 ganglioside (GalNAcß l-4(NeuAcα2–3)Galßl­4Glc-Cer) from Tay-Sachs brains by Klenk,l at least 50 different structures of sialic acid- and fucose-containing glycosphingolipids(GSLs)2–7have been described. There is increasing evidence that GSLs are involved in the interaction of cholera toxin,8 plant lectins,9,10 interferon,11 siga toxin,12 and polypeptide hormones13 with receptor sites at the surfaces of plasma membranes.


Cholera Toxin Enzymatic Synthesis Chicken Brain Bovine Spleen Rabbit Bone Marrow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. Klenk and L. Georgias, Uber zwei weitere komponenten des Gemisches der Gehirn-ganglioside, Hoppe Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 348: 1261 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Svennerholm, The chemical structure of normal human brain and Tay Sachs gangliosides, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 9: 346 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Kuhn and H. Wiegandt, Die Konstitution der gangliotetraose und des ganglioside G1, Chem. Ber. 96: 866 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Wiegandt and H.W. Bucking, Carbohydrate components of extraneuronal gangliosides from bovine and human spleen and bovine kidney, Eur. J. Biochem. 15: 287 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.W. Ledeen, Ganglioside structures and distribution: are they localized at the nerve ending, J. Supramolecular Struc. 8: 1 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Kishimoto, Sphingolipid Formation, in “The Enzymes” (ed. R.D. Boyer) Academic Press, New York. Vol. 16, 357 (1983).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Hakomori, Glycosphingolipids in cellular interaction, differentiation and oncogenesis, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50: 733 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Holmgren, I. Lonnorth, and L. Svennerholm, Tissue receptor for cholera exotoxin: postulated structure from studies with GM1 ganglio-side and related glycolipids, Infect. Immun. 8: 208 (1973).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A Surolia, B.K. Bachhawat, and S.K. Podder, Interaction between lectin from Ricinus communisand liposomes containing gangliosides, Nature (London). 257: 802 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Basu, S. Basu, W.G. Shanabruch, J.R. Moskal, and C.H. Evans, Lectins and cholera toxin binding to guinea pig tumor (104C1) cell surfaces before and after glycosphingolipid incorporation, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71: 385 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Besancon, H. Ankel, and S. Basu, Specificity and reversibility of interferon ganglioside interaction, Nature. 259: 576 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Block, M.E. Breimer, A. Brignole, G.C. Hansson, K.A. Karlsson, G. Larson, H. Leffler, B.E. Samuelsson, N. Stromberg, C.S. Eden, and J. Thurin, Specificity of binding of a strain of uropathogenic E. coli to Galal-4Gal-containing glycosphingolipids, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 8545 (1985).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.M. Aloj, L.D. Kohn, G. Lee, and M.F. Meldolesi, The binding of thyrotropin to liposomes containing gangliosides, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 74: 1053 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Basu, M. Basu, J.W. Kyle, and H.C. Chon, Biosynthesis in vitro of gangliosides containing Gg-and Lc-cores, in “Gangliosides Structure and Function” by (ed. R. Ledeen) Plenum Press, 249 (1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Basu and M. Basu, Expression of glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferases in development and transformation, in “The Glycoconjugates” (ed. M. Horowitz) Academic Press, New York. Vol. 3, 265 (1982).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Basu, M. Basu, J.L. Chien, and K.A. Presper, Biosynthesis of ganglio-sides in tissues, in “Structure and Function of Gangliosides” (eds. L. Svennerholm, H. Dreyfus, and P.F. Urban) Plenum Publishing Corp., 213 (1980).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Basu, K.A. Presper, S. Basu, L.M. Hoffman, and S.E. Brooks, Differential activities of glycolipid glycosyltransferase in Tay-Sachs disease: Studies in cultured cells from cerebrum, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 76: 4270 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Basu, J.R. Moskal, and D.A. Gardner, Scanning electron microscopic and glycosphingolipid biosynthetic studies of differentiating mouse neuroblastoma cells, in “Biochemical and Pharmacological Implications of Ganglioside Function” (ed. G. Porcellati) Plenum Press Publishing Corp., New York, Vol. 71, 45 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Steigarwald, S. Basu, B. Kaufman, and S. Roseman, Enzymatic synthesis of Tay-Sachs ganglioside, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 6727 (1975).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.W. Keenan, D.J. Morre, and S. Basu, Ganglioside biosynthesis: concentration of glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferases in Golgi apparatus from rat liver, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 310 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Basu, B. Kaufman, and S. Roseman, Enzymatic synthesis of glucocerebroside by a glucosyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 247: 1489 (1973).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Kaufman, S. Basu, and S. Roseman, Enzymatic synthesis of disialogangliosides from monosialogangliosides by sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 5804 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Basu, B. Kaufman, and S. Roseman, Enzymatic synthesis of ceramideglucose and ceramide-lactose by glycosyltransferases from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 5802 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Kaufman, S. Basu, and S. Roseman, in “Inborn errors of sphingolipid metabolism” (eds. S.M. Aronson and B.W. Volk) Pergamon Press, New York, 213 (1967).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Basu, Studies on the biosynthesis of gangliosides, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1966).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Basu, B. Kaufman, and S. Roseman, Conversion of Tay-Sachs ganglio-sides to monosialoganglioside by brain uridine diphosphate D-galactose: glycolipid galactosyltransferase, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 4114 (1965).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Basu, S. Basu, A. Stoffyn, and P. Stoffyn, Biosynthesis in vitro of sialy1(a2–3)neolactotetraosylceramide by a sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 12765 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Higashi, M. Basu, and S. Basu, Biosynthesis in vitro of disialosylneolactotetraosylceramide by a solubilized sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 824 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.A. Yiamouyiannis and J.A. Dain, UDP-galactose:N-acetylgalactosaminyl(N-acetylneuraminyl)galactosyl-glucosyl-ceramide transferase activity in adult frog brain, Lipids. 3: 378 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.S. Ng and J.A. Dain, Sialyltransferases in rat brain: reaction kinetics, product analysis, and multiplicities of enzyme species, J. Neurochem. 29: 1075 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    H.J.F. Maccioni, S.S. Defilpo, C.A. Landa, and R. Caputto, Ganglioside glycosylating activity in rat brain neuronal perikarya fraction, Biochem. J. 174: 673 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Stoffyn and A. Stoffyn, Biosynthesis in vitro of mono-and di-sialogangliosides from gangliotetraosylceramide by cultured cell lines and young rat brain, Carbohydr. Res. 78: 327 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P.H. Fishman and R.O. Brady, Biosynthesis and function of gangliosides, Science. 194: 906 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.O. Brady and P.H. Fishman, Biosynthesis of glycolipids in virus-transformed cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 355: 121 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Basu and S. Basu, Enzymatic synthesis of a tetraglycosylceramide by a galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow, J. Biol. Chem. 247: 1489 (1972).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Basu, M. Basu, and J.L. Chien, Enzymatic synthesis of blood group H-related glycosphingolipid by an a-fucosyltransferase from bovine spleen, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 2956 (1975).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Basu and S. Basu, Enzymatic synthesis of a blood group B specific pentaglycosylceramide by an a-galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 1700 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    K.A. Presper, M. Basu, and S. Basu, Biosynthesis in vitro of a blood group B-active fucose-containing hexaglycosylceramide from neolactopentaosylceramide in bovine spleen, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 169 (1982).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Basu and S. Basu, Biosynthesis in vitro of Ii-core glycolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by 131–3 and ßl-6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 12557 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Basu, M. Basu, J.W. Kyle, T. De, K. Das, and R.J. Schaeper, Biosynthesis of gangliosides and blood group glycolipids using solubilized glycosyltransferases, in “Enzymes of Lipid Metabolism” (eds. L. Freysz and S. Galt) Plenum Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.W. Kyle, Characterization of glycolipid galactosyltransferases from embryonic chicken brain, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (1985).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Basu, T. De, J.W. Kyle, and M. Basu, Biosynthesis of eukaryotic cell surface glycosphingolipids using solubilized glycosyltransferases, Proc. Int. Symp. Biomol. Struct. Interactions, Suppl. J. Biosci. 8: (in press) (1985).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J.L. Chien, T. Williams, and S. Basu, Biosynthesis of a globoside-type glycosphingolipid by a ß-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 1778 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    K.K. Das, R.J. Schaeper, M. Basu, and S. Basu, Characterization and comparison of two glycolipids: ß-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases in embryonic chicken brain and guinea pig tumor cells, Federation Proc. 43: 1566 (1984).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K.K. Das, M. Basu, and S. Basu, Biosynthesis in vitro of GalNAcß1–3 containing globoside and Forssman glycolipid by two N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases from chemically transformed guinea pig cells, Carbohydrate Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    S. Hakomori, Aberrant glycosylation in cancer cell membranes as focused on glycolipids: overview and perspectives, Cancer Res. 45: 2405 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhash Basu
    • 1
  • Manju Basu
  • Tripti De
    • 1
  • John W. Kyle
    • 1
  • Kamal K. Das
    • 1
  • Robert J. Schaeper
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology ProgramUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

Personalised recommendations