The Local Regulation of Bone Remodeling
Mounting experimental evidence indicates that skeletal remodeling is under local as well as systemic control. Local environmental factors which may well be significant include mechanical (loading and fluid pressure) and electrical forces, and locally elaborated humoral factors such as prostaglandins, regulatory proteins, and components of the organic matrix. The local ionic milieu and direct cell-cell interactions may also contribute. The effects of systemically elaborated hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1α,25-(OH)2 D3 under physiological conditions may only be permissive, at least under physiological conditions, establishing the proper environment and ensuring an adequate supply of cellular participants for remodeling. High levels of these agents sharply enhance the likelihood of resorption and remodeling. By contrast, local forces seem to be important determinants of the location and frequency of remodeling activity, and may well perpetuate the remodeling cascade so that it proceeds inevitably through an entire coupled sequence of resorption and formation.
KeywordsBone Resorption Bone Surface Local Environmental Factor Stromal System Skeletal Remodel
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