Advertisement

Human Red Blood Cell Choline in Aging and Senile Dementia: Effects of Precursor Therapy

  • K. A. Sherman
  • E. Friedman
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 30)

Abstract

The decline of cognitive function associated with aging is thought to involve deficits in brain cholinergic mechanisms (4, 8, 16, 21, 28). Cognitive deterioration is greatly exacerbated in senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). In this disease the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine (ACh), is markedly reduced in cortex and hippocampus, when compared to age-matched controls (5, 8, 22, 25, 26). The decrease of ChAT activity in cortex is closely correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment and the extent of neuropathology (5, 22). High affinity uptake of choline (Ch) and in vitro synthesis of ACh in cortical tissue biopsied from SDAT patients were reduced (29, 30). These biochemical changes in Alzheimer’s patients appear to reflect a loss of cholinergic innervation to hippocampus and cortex (31, 34), which subserve an important role in memory and cognition (4, 11). Therefore, many of the recent strategies for treatment of SDAT reflect attempts to reverse this deficit in cholinergic function.

Keywords

Young Control Global Deterioration Scale Chronic Treatment Regimen Lecithin Treatment Blood Choline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson, B., Friedman, E., Sherman, K., Banay-Schwartz, M., O’Donnell, J., Carlton, M. and Volavka, J. (Submitted).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barclay, L.L., Blass, J.P., Kopp, U. and Hanin, I. (1981): New Engl. J. Med. 307: 501.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bartus, R.T., Dean, R.L., Sherman, K.A., Friedman, E. and Beer, B. (1981): Neurobiol. Aging 2: 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bartus, R.T., Dean, R.L., Beer, B. and Lippa, A.S. (1982): Science 217: 408–417.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowen, D.A., Smith, C.B., White, P. and Davison, A.M. (1976): Brain 99: 459–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cohen, E.L. and Wurtman, R.J. (1976): Science 191: 561–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Corkin, S., Davis, K.L., Growdon, J.H., Usdin, E. and Wurtman, R.J. (Eds) (1982): Alzheimer’s Disease: A Report of Progress in Research (Aging V. 19), Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies, P. (1979): Brain Res. 171: 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dolezal, V. and Tucek, S. (1982): Brain Res. 240: 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Domino, E.F., Minor, L., Duff, I.F., Tait, S. and Gershon, S. (1982): In Alzheimer’s Disease: A Report of Progress in Research (eds) S. Corkin, K.L. Davis, J.H. Growdon, E. Usdin and R.J. Wurtman, Raven Press, New York, pp. 393–397.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Drachman, D.A. (1977): Neurology 27: 783–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eckernas, S.A. and Aquilonius, S.M. (1977): Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 37: 183–187.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferris, S.H., Reisberg, B., Crook, T., Friedman, E., Schneck, M.K., Sherman, K.A., Corwin, J., Gershon, J. and Bartus, R.T. (1982): In Alzheimer’s Disease: A Report of Progress in Research (Aging V. 19). (eds) S. Corkin, K.L. Davis, J.H. Growdon, E. Usdin and R.J. Wurtman, Raven Press, New York, pp. 475–481.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Friedman, E., Sherman, K.A., Ferris, S.H., Reisberg, B., Bartus, R.T. and Schneck, M.K. (1981): New Engl. J. Med. 304: 1490–1491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson, G.E., Peterson, C. and Sarsone, J. (1981): Neurobiol. Aging 2: 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gibson, G.E. and Peterson, C. (1982): In The Aging Brain: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging in the Nervous System (Aging V. 20), (eds) E. Giacobini, G. Filogano, G. Giacobini and A. Vernadakis, Raven Press, New York, pp. 107–122.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glen, A.M., Yates, C.M., Simpson, J., Christie, J.E., Shering, A., Whalley, L.J. and Jellinek, E.H. (1981): Psychol. Med. 11: 469–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hanin, I., Kopp, U., Spiker, D.S., Neil, J.F., Shaw, D.H. and Kupfer, D.J. (1980): Psychiat. Res. 3: 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jenden, D.J. and Hanin, I. (1974): In Choline and Acetylcholine: Handbook of Chemical Assay Methods (ed) I. Hanin, Raven Press, New York, pp. 135–150.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nicholson, V.J. and Wolthuis, O.L. (1976): Biochem. Pharmacol. 25: 2241–2244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perry, E.K., Perry, R.H., Gibson, P.H., Blessed, G. and Tomlinson, B.E. (1977): Neurosci. Letters 6: 85–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perry, E.K., Tomlinson, B.E., Blessed, G., Bergmann, K., Gibson, P.H. and Perry, R.H. (1978): Brit. Med. J. 42: 1457–1459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Porcellati, G., Gaiti, A. and Brunetti, M. (1982): In The Aging Brain: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging in the Nervous System (Aging V. 20), (eds) E. Giacobini, G. Filogamo, G. Giacobini and A. Vernadakis, Raven Press, New York, pp. 77–86.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reisberg, B., Ferris, S.H., deLeon, M.J. and Crook, T. (1982): Am. J. Psychiat. 139: 1136–1139.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reisine, T., Yamamura, H.I., Bird, E.D., Spokes, E. and Enna, S.J. (1978): Brain Res. 159: 477–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rossor, M.N.; Rehfeld, J.F., Emson, P.C., Mountjoy, C.O., Roth, M. and Iversen, L.L. (1981): Life Sci. 29:405–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Serby, M., Corwin, J., Rotrosen, J., Ferris, S.H., Reisberg, B., Friedman, E., Sherman, K.A., Jordan, B. and Bartus, R. (1983): Psychopharm. Bull. 19: 126–129.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sherman, K., Kuster, J., Dean, R.L., Bartus, R. and Friedman, E. (1981): Neurobiol. of Aging 2: 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sims, N.R., Bowen, D.M. and Davison, A.N. (1981): Biochem. J. 196: 867–876.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Spillane, J.A., White, P., Goodhardt, M.J., Flack, R.H.A., Bowen, D.M. and Davison, A.w. (1977): Nature 266: 558–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tagliavini, F. and Pilleri, P. (1983): Lancet 1: 469–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Volavka, J., Lifshiftz, K., Friedman, E., Sherman, K.A. and Banay-Schwartz, M. (1983): Biol. Psychiat. 18: 1175–1179.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vroulis, G.A., Smith, R.C., Brinkman, S., Schodar, J. and Gordon, J. (1981): Psychopharm. Bull. 17; 127–128.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whitehouse, P.J., Price, D.L., Struble, R.G., Clark, A.W., Coyle, S.T. and deLong, M.R. (1982): Science 215: 1238–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Sherman
    • 1
  • E. Friedman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologySouthern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and PharmacologyNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations