Dietary Promoters and Antipromoters

  • Michael J. Wargovich
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 39)


Changes in human dietary habits can be correlated with changes in the incidence of certain human epithelial cancers such as cancer of the colon and stomach. From this it can be inferred that the diet may harbor chemicals that may cause cancer. It can also be similarly postulated that factors that help to prevent cancer exist in the diet. New testing techniques for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity enable one to identify a considerable number of dietary chemicals. Some of these chemicals influence carcinogenesis by reacting with initiating carcinogens. This presents the exciting possibility that certain cancerous diseases may be prevented by eliminating or binding dietary carcinogens. Although simple in concept, this approach to cancer control is hampered by a lack of carcinogenicity data for dietary carcinogens in humans, and by the logistics of such an endeavor.


Bile Acid Wheat Bran Cholic Acid Plant Sterol Deoxycholic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ames, B. N. (1983) Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens. Science 221:1256–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bauer, H. G., N. G. Asp, R. Oste, A. Dahlquist, and P. E. Fredlung (1979) Effect of dietary fiber on the induction of colorectal tumors and fecal B-glucoronidase activity in the rat. Cancer Res. 39:3752–3756.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Becker, F. F. (1981) Inhibition of spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in C3H/Hen mice by Ed. Pro A, an isolated soy protein. Carcinogenesis 2:1213–1214.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bull, A. W., B. K. Soullier, P. S. Wilson, M. T. Hayden, and N. D. Nigro (1979) Promotion of azoxymethane-induced intestinal cancer by high-fat diet in rats. Cancer Res. 39:956–959.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bull, A. W., N. D. Nigro, W. A. Golembieski, J. D. Crissman, and L. J. Marnett (1984) In vivo stimulation of DNA synthesis and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in rat colon by fatty acid hydroperoxides, auto-oxidation products of unsaturated fatty acids. Cancer Res. 44: 4924–4928.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chadwick, V. S., T. S. Gaginella, J. C. Debongie, G. L. Carlson, S. F. Phillips, and A. F. Hofmann (1976) Mucosal epitheliolysis: A mechanism for increased permeability induced by dihydroxy bile acids. Gut 17: 816.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen, B. I., and R. F. Raicht (1981) Plant sterols: Protective role in chemical carcinogenesis. In Inhibition of Tumor Induction and Development, M. S. Zedeck and M. Lipkin, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 189–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cruse, J. P., M. R. Lewin, and C. G. Clark (1981) The effects of cholic acid and bile salt binding agents on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-lnduced colon cancer in the rat. Carcinogenesis 2: 439–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cummings, J. H. (1982) Polysaccharide fermentation in the human colon. In Colon and Nutrition, H. Kasper and H. Goebell, eds. MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster, pp. 91–102.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deschner, E. E., and L. W. Kattenberg (1982) The proliferative effect of dietary butylated hydroxyanisole on methylazoxymethanol treated colonic mucosa. Cancer Lett. 16:197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doll, R., and R. Peto (1981) The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66: 1191–1308.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farber, E. (1982) Chemical carcinogenesis. Am. J. Pathol. 106:271–291.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freeman, H. J., G. A. Spiller, and Y. S. Kim (1980) A double-blind study on the effects of purified cellulose fiber on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colonic neoplasia. Cancer Res. 38:2912–2917.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freeman, H. J., G. A. Spiller, and Y. S. Kim (1984) Effect of high hemi-cellulose corn bran on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced rat neoplasia. Carcinogenesis 5:261–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaginella, T. S., and S. F. Phillips (1976) Ricinoleic acid (castor oil) alters intestinal surface structure. Mayo Clin. Proc. 51:6–12.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ito, N., S. Fukushima, A. Hagiwara, M. Shibata, and T. Ogiso (1983) Carcinogenicity of butylated hydroxyanisole in F344 rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70:343–352.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jacobs, L. R. (1983) Effects of dietary fiber on mucosal growth and cell proliferation in the small intestine of the rat: A comparison of oat bran, pectin, and guar with total fiber deprivation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37:954–960.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jacobs, L. R. (1983) Enhancement of rat colon carcinogenesis by wheat bran consumption during the stage of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine administration. Cancer Res. 43:4057–4061.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jacobs, L. R., and F. A. White (1983) Modulation of mucosal cell proliferation in the intestine of rats fed a wheat bran diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 37:945–953.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mattson, F. H., S. M. Grundy, and J. R. Crouse (1982) Optimizing the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol absorption in man. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 35:697–700.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Narisawa, T., N. E. Magadia, J. H. Weisburger, and E. L. Wynder (1974) Promoting effect of bile acids on colon carcinogenesis after intrarectal instillation of N-methyl-N’-nitroso-N-nitrosoguanldine in rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 53:1095–1097.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nauss, K. M., M. Locniskar, and P. M. Newberne (1983) Effect of alterations in the quality and quantity of dietary fat on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res. 43:4083–4090.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Newmark, H. L., M. J. Wargovich, and W. R. Bruce (1984) Colon cancer and dietary fat, phosphate, and calcium: A hypothesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 72:1323–1325.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Newmark, H. L., M. J. Wargovich, and W. R. Bruce (1985) Ions and neoplastic development. In Large Bowel Cancer, A. J. Mastromarino and M. G. Brattain, eds. Praeger Scientific, New York, pp. 102–131.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nigro, N. D., D. V. Singh, R. L. Campbell, and M. S. Pak (1975) Effect of dietary beef fat on intestinal tumor formation by azoxymethane in rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 5:429–442.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nordin, B. E., and D. A. Smith (1965) Fat absorption and pancreatic function. In Diagnostic Procedures in Disorders of Calcium Metabolism, Churchill Press, London, pp. 83–97.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raicht, R. F., B. I. Cohen, E. P. Fazzini, A. N. Sarwal, and M. Takahashi (1980) Protective effect of plant sterols against chemically induced colon tumors in rats. Cancer Res. 40:403–405.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reddy, B. S., and Y. Maeura (1984) Tumor promotion by dietary fat in azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in female F344 rats: Influence of amount and source of fat. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 72:745–750.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Reddy, B. S., and T. Ohmori (1981) Effect of intestinal microflora and dietary fat on 3, 2-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Cancer Res. 41:1363–1367.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reddy, B. S., and K. Watanabe (1979) Effect of cholesterol metabolites and promoting effect of lithocholic acid in colon carcinogenesis in germ-free and conventional F344 rats. Cancer Res. 39:1521–1524.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reddy, B. S., Y. Maeura, and J. H. Weisburger (1983) Effect of various levels of dietary butylated hydroxyanisole on methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced colon carcinogenesis in CFI mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71:1299–1305.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reddy, B. S., H. Mori, and M. Nicolais (1981) Effect of wheat bran and dehydrated citrus fiber on azoxymethane-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in Fischer 344 rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66:553–557.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reddy, B. S., K. Watanabe, and J. H. Wesiburger (1977) Effect of high fat diet on colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats treated with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine, methylazoxymethanol acetate and methylnitrosourea. Cancer Res. 37:4156–4159.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reddy, B. S., J. H. Weisburger, and E. L. Wynder (1974) Effect of dietary fat level and dimethylhydrazine on fecal acid and neutral sterol excretion and colon carcinogenesis in rats, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52: 507–511.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reddy, B. S., T. Narisawa, J. H. Weisburger, and E. L. Wynder (1976) Promoting effect of sodium deoxycholate on colon adenocarcinoma in germ free rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56:441–442.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reddy, B. S., K. Watanabe, J. H. Weisburger, and E. L. Wynder (1977) Promoting effect of bile acids in colon carcinogenesis in germ-free and conventional F344 rats. Cancer Res. 37:3238–3242.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rogers, A. E., G. Lenhart, and G. Morrison (1980) Influence of dietary lipotrope and lipid content on aflatoxin B, N-1 fluorenylacetamide, and 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res. 40: 2801–2807.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sakaguchi, M., Y. Hitamatsu, H. Takada, M. Yamamura, K. Hioki, K. Saito, and M. Yamamoto (1984) Effect of dietary unsaturated and saturated fats on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res. 44:1472–1477.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shirai, T., A. Hagiwara, Y. Kurata, M. Shibata, S. Fukushima, and N. Itso (1982) Lack of carcinogenicity of butylated hydroxytoluene on long term administration to B6C3F mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 20:861–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stragand, J. J., and R. F. Hagemann (1977) Effect of lumenal contents on colonic cell replacement. Am. J. Physiol. 233:E208-E211.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Takigawa, M., A. K. Verma, R. C. Simsiman, and R. K. Boutwell (1982) Polyamine biosynthesis and skin tumor promotion: Inhibition of 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-promoted mouse skin tumor formation by the irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, α-difluoromethylornithine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 105:969–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Troll, W., and R. Wiesner (1982) Protease inhibitors as anticarcinogens and radioprotectors. In Radioprotectors and Anticarcinogens, O. F. Nygaard and M. Simic, eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 567–575.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Troll, W., S. Belman, S. Wiesner, and C. Shellabarger (1979) Protease action in carcinogenesis. In Biological Function of Proteases, H. Holzer and T. Tschesche, eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 165–170.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Trundel, J. L., M. K. Senterman, and R. A. Brown (1983) The fat/fiber antagonism in experimental colon carcinogenesis. Surgery 94:691–696.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Van Soest, P. J., and J. B. Robertson (1976) Chemical and physical properties of dietary fibre. In Proceedings of the Miles Symposium, Nova Scotia, Canada, pp. 13–25.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wattenberg, L. W., and V. L. Sparnins (1979) Inhibitory effects of butylated hydroxyanisole on methylazoxymethanol acetate-induced neoplasia of the large intestine and on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63:219–222.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wattenberg, L. W., D. M. Jerina, L. K. Lam, and H. Yagi (1979) Neoplastic effects of oral administration of (±) trans 7, 8-dihydroxybenzol(a)pyrene and their inhibition by butylated hydroxyanisole. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62:1103–1106.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wargovich, M. J., V. W. S. Eng, and H. L. Newmark (1984) Calcium modification of the promoting stimulus of fatty acids to colonic epithelium. Cancer Lett. 23:256–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wargovich, M. J., V. W. S. Eng, H. L. Newmark, and W. R. Bruce (1983) Calcium ameliorates the toxic effects of deoxycholic acid on colonic epithelium. Carcinogenesis 4:1205–1207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Watanabe, K., B. S. Reddy, J. H. Weisburger, and D. Kritchevsky (1979) Effect of dietary alfalfa, pectin, and wheat bran on azoxymethane or methylnitrosourea induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 63:141–145.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weidema, W. F., E. E. Deschner, B. I. Cohen, and J. J. DeCosse (1985) Acute effects of dietary cholic acid and methylazoxymethanol acetate on colon epithelial cell proliferation; metabolism of bile salts and neutral sterols in conventional and germ free SD rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 74:665–670.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Williams, G. M., Y. Maeura, and J. H. Weisburger (1983) Simultaneous inhibition of liver carcinogenicity and enhancement of bladder carcinogenicity of N-2 fluorenylacetamide by butylated hydroxytoluene. Cancer Lett. 19:55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yavelow, J., T. H. Finlay, A. R. Kennedy, and W. Troll (1983) Bowman-Birk soybean protease inhibitor as an anticarcinogen. Cancer Res. 43:2434s-2459s.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Wargovich
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Gastrointestinal Oncology and Digestive Diseases, Department of Medical OncologyUniversity of TexasHoustonUSA
  2. 2.M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor InstituteHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations